Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals and Health Risk Burden, How Safe is the Consumer Population?: A Study on the Heavy Metal Content of Soybeans Cultivated in Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, J. I. Bungudu, L. Shuaibu, A. J. Alhassan, A. Nasir, U. Bello, A. Usman, Z. A. Suleiman, A. Abdullahi, M. M. Muhammad, A. I. Yaradua, I. A. Yaradua

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i430261

The level of heavy metals in soybeans samples were evaluated to ascertain their likely health risks to the Katsina State populace. Atomic absorption spectrometry method was employed for the evaluation, while the three senatorial zones of the state were used for sampling. Using methods adapted from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), the health risks to the population from the heavy metals in the samples were determined.  The results have revealed the mean concentration (mg/kg) in decreasing order of concentrations to be for Zn (range: 1.204-1.432), Pb (range: 0.658-0.998), Fe (range: 0.563-0.687), Cr (range: 0.128-0.151) and Cd (range: 0.041-0.046), with the concentrations of Mn and Ni below the level of detection. The computed non-carcinogenic health risks from consumption of the samples were below 1 (THQ and HI>1). The cancer risk to the population lies beyond the threshold limit with the heavy metal Pb being the major contributor to the violation. It may be presumed that the Soybean samples in the study may add to the cancer manifestations in the population.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Analysis of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester from Congolese Non-Edible Afzelia bella Seeds Oil

A. Mulula, Thierno N. Manoka, E. B. Bayindu, A. D. Bouzina

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 15-24
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i430262

As the oils used for biodiesel production face food competition, many scientific research is now focusing on the upgrading of non-conventional oils, which are not edibles. This study consisted in revalorizing of Congolese nonedible Afzelia bella seeds oil as raw materials for the biodiesel production. Afzelia bella seeds oil was extracted with oil yield of 26.38±0.22% and subsequently transesterified by alkali-catalyst using methanol with KOH as catalyst. The maximum yield of the obtained Diacetylenic Light Fuel Oil was 96.53% and FTIR spectroscopy showed the presence of fatty acid methyl esters in the produced biodiesel. The FTIR spectrum of Diacetylenic Light Fuel Oil revealed the following characteristics functional groups: Carbonyl group stretching (C=O), Methyl asymmetric bending (CH3) and Methoxy group stretching (O-CH3) with the peaks at 1743.94, 1436.11 and 1197.38 cm-1, respectively. Physicochemical properties (Kinematic viscosity, density, flash point, Cetane number, cloud point, pour point, water contents, ash and sulfur contents) values of Biodiesel (B100), and biodiesel blend in Gasoil (B50 and B20), were within the range of values set by the international standards specifications of diesel and biodiesel (American Society of Testing Materials and European Standard). Thus, these three produced biodiesels (B100, B50 and B20) from the Congolese Afzelia bella seeds oil could be used as a substitute for diesel without damaging the engine.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis; Characterization and Anti Inflammatory Activity of “3-(2-[1H Benzimidazole-2-YL)-2-Oxethyl] Phenyl) Acetic Acid and Its Derivatives”

Rohit Jaysing Bhor, Sonali Pawar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 25-34
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i430263

A series of five-membered heterocyclic rings like Benzimidazole were synthesized by the reaction between benzene-1, 2 diamine and formic acid to form various Benzimidazole derivatives (BD- BK) compounds and was tested for their anti-inflammatory activity determined by rat-paw- oedema method. All the synthesis compounds have been characterized by 1HNMR, IR and some Mass spectral data. The compounds were purified by recrystallization method. The entire compound gives good response for the anti-inflammatory activity: Benzimidazole (AA), 1-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-(3-hydroxyphenyl) ethanone (AC); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-phenylacetamide (AJ); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-(2-nitrophenyl) acetamide (AK); 2-{3-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-2-oxoethyl] phenyl}-N-(3-nitrophenyl) acetamide (AL). For this anti-inflammatory activity, Indometacin was used as a standard drug and compared to new synthesized drugs. Some new synthesized drugs have shown better activities for the anti-inflammation. The synthesize compounds were establish to be AA to AL. The compound AA, AC, AJ, AK and AL were established to be the most potent compound through compare to standard drugs Indomethacin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Carcinogenic and Non-Carcinogenic Health Risk of Heavy Metal Exposures from Some Local Fruits in Katsina State, North West Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, J. I. Bungudu, L. Shuaibu, A. Nasir, A. Usman, U. Bello, Z. A. Suleiman, I. A. Yaradua

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 35-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i430264

This work was carried out to evaluate the heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, Mn, Pb and Zn) pollution load and health risks to the population of some local fruit samples in Katsina state Nigeria. Results from this study have shown that except for the mean concentration of Pb (1.152-1.623) and Cd (0.053-0.092), the mean concentration (mg/kg) range values of Fe (1.728-1.954), Mn (0.321-0.502) and Zn (0.263-0.967 ppm) in the samples were generally below the maximum allowable concentration for these metals. The risk level of Target Hazard Quotient below 1(< 1) was recorded for all the evaluated heavy metals for the population, indicating a no non-carcinogenic adverse health effect on the population. The Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk for the heavy metal Cd was at the threshold risk limit (>10−4) in all the sampled fruits in adults, while Pb for adults and Pb and Cd for children were within the moderate risk limit (>10−3). The cumulative cancer risk (∑ILCR) of the studied fruits was within the moderate risk level (>10−3) in adults and above the level (>10−2) in children. The results of the study have suggested that the intake of the local fruits in Katsina State is of public health concern as it may lead to an increase in the population cancer cases.

Open Access Original Research Article

Health Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils from Katsina State, North-Western Nigeria

A. I. Yaradua, L. Shuaibu, A. J. Alhassan, J. I. Bungudu, A. Usman, A. Nasir, I. A. Yaradua

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 47-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v11i4209

This work contributes to the monitoring of heavy metal pollution of Agricultural soils, Katsina State Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The heavy metal contamination of the soil samples were analyzed based on the Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The health risks of the evaluated heavy metals were estimated using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI)) to evaluate the possible non-carcinogenic effect and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for the cancer risk to the population. The results of the study had revealed that in the soil samples all the evaluated heavy metals lie within acceptable limits as set by the regulatory agencies. The evaluated soil samples pollution indices had revealed that the I-geo values for the soil samples were within the range of unpolluted to moderate pollution. Also, the heavy metal enrichment factor (EF) value for the soil samples have indicated that only the heavy metal Fe showed significant enrichment, with the soil samples being moderately contaminated with Fe. The pollution load index (PLI) also indicated unpolluted to moderate pollution. With the potential ecological risk index (PERI) values presenting low ecological risks. The calculated non-cancer risk indices in both the children and adults population for all the heavy metals were less than 1. With the exception of the ILCR for the heavy metal Pb in children from Daura zone that was in limits that environmental and regulatory agencies considered as unacceptable risk, risk values for all the heavy metals falls within the range of the threshold of the safe limit and limits regarded as safe by the regulatory agencies (10-7 to 10-4). The results of pollution indices have indicated that the Agricultural soil samples have low contamination and low health risks by the heavy metals evaluated.