Health Risk Assessment of Some Selected Heavy Metals in Agricultural Soils from Katsina State, North-Western Nigeria
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research,
This work contributes to the monitoring of heavy metal pollution of Agricultural soils, Katsina State Nigeria, using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The heavy metal contamination of the soil samples were analyzed based on the Geoaccumulation index (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF), contamination factor (CF), pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (PERI). The health risks of the evaluated heavy metals were estimated using the Hazard Quotient (HQ) and Hazard Index (HI)) to evaluate the possible non-carcinogenic effect and the Incremental Lifetime Cancer Risk (ILCR) for the cancer risk to the population. The results of the study had revealed that in the soil samples all the evaluated heavy metals lie within acceptable limits as set by the regulatory agencies. The evaluated soil samples pollution indices had revealed that the I-geo values for the soil samples were within the range of unpolluted to moderate pollution. Also, the heavy metal enrichment factor (EF) value for the soil samples have indicated that only the heavy metal Fe showed significant enrichment, with the soil samples being moderately contaminated with Fe. The pollution load index (PLI) also indicated unpolluted to moderate pollution. With the potential ecological risk index (PERI) values presenting low ecological risks. The calculated non-cancer risk indices in both the children and adults population for all the heavy metals were less than 1. With the exception of the ILCR for the heavy metal Pb in children from Daura zone that was in limits that environmental and regulatory agencies considered as unacceptable risk, risk values for all the heavy metals falls within the range of the threshold of the safe limit and limits regarded as safe by the regulatory agencies (10-7 to 10-4). The results of pollution indices have indicated that the Agricultural soil samples have low contamination and low health risks by the heavy metals evaluated.
- heavy metals
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