Open Access Original Research Article

Minimizing of Dextran during Sugar Beet Manufacturing

H. S. Abd Alraoof, S. I. El- Syiad, A. A. Abdel- Hamid, Sanaa A. El- Sherif

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 14-21
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230208

The most serious processing problem can clear arise from the presence of dextran gum. The presence of dextran in sugar processing leads to less of sucrose and creates problems to sugar producers by increasing viscosity, lowing sugar yield, increasing molasses purities slowing filtration. The application of dextran enzyme to reduce dextran from raw juice was more efficient and economic than adding it to clear juice and syrup. Sixty percent of dextran removal was achieved when dextranase applied at concentration of 20u/100ml raw juice and 30min incubation. The dextran reduction and reached 65% by the use of 30u under some condition in clear juice, the percentage of dextran reduction reached 25,27 and 45% when dextranase enzyme used at 30u /100mol after 10,20 and 30 min of the incubation respectively. The use of the application of dextranase enzyme to reduce dextran from raw juice was more efficient and economic than adding it to clear juice and syrup.

Sixty percent of the dextran was removed when using dextranase   applications at a concentration of 20u/100ml of raw juice over 30 minutes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Canagliflozin in Rat Plasma After Oral Administration by Liquid Chromatographic as (Pharmacokinetic Study)

Krishna R. Gupta, Sneha Shelke, Anvesha V. Ganorkar, Nishiben Patel, Milind J. Umekar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 22-30
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230210

 The research work aims to develop a bioanalytical method using liquid chromatography and validated for the determination of canagliflozin by using an internal standard. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur (MS). Isocratic chromatography separation was achieved on an LC system with PDA detector on an ACE C18 (150mm× 4.6mm × 5µm) column using a mobile phase composition of acetonitrile: ammonium acetate buffer in the ration of 50:50 v/v (pH 4.5), orthophosphoric acid is used to adjust pH of mobile phase and the flow rate at 1.0ml/ min. and estimation was carried out at 291 nm. The retention time of a drug was 4.633 minutes. The method was validated for several parameters (specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy) and also successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic in female rats. Calibration plot was linear (r2 > 0.9973) over the concentration range of 5-30 µg/ml for canagliflozin. The high recovery and low relative standard deviation (%RSD) confirm the suitability of the method. The result of Limit of Detection (LOD) and Limit of Quantitation (LOQ) were found to be 0.1099 μg/ml and 0.3331 μg/ml, respectively. The new RP-HPLC method can be conveniently adapted for examining canagliflozin concentration in rat plasma after oral administration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preparation and Evaluation of Biodegradation Performance of Potato Starch Mixed LDPE Polymer Composites

Sanchita Dewanjee, Lainur Nahar, Shahnaz Parven, Muhammed Yusuf Miah

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 31-41
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230211

The potential of biodegradable polymers has long been appreciated. In this work, an attempt has been made to synthesize biodegradable polymer composite from potato starch and low density polyethylene (LDPE) with different ratios of starch (0%-15% w/w) by using an extruder. The structure and morphology of film surfaces was studied using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) respectively. The physical (density, water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural) and thermal (TGA and DTA) analyses of starch/LDPE bio-composites were evaluated through standard methods and instruments. Biodegradation tendency was investigated utilizing soil burial and Rockwell micro-hardness test.The results revealed that the density and water absorption of polymer blends increased with increasing the starch content in starch/LDPE composites. The tensile strength and elongation at break decreased with starch content whereas the elastic modulus, flexural strength and flexural modulus rose. The biodegradability of composites enhanced by increasing the starch content and the result was backed by weight loss during burial of the samples in soil for 90 days. Microhardness test also supported the biodegradation probability as hardness found to reduce extensively after soil burial. However, further study to decide the optimum starch loading alongwith some modifications to starch and LDPE is highly suggested to have a biodegradable LDPE polymer composite in a realistic time frame.

Open Access Original Research Article

Variation of Yield and Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Cupressus lusitanica Growing in Different Agro-ecological Zones of Rwanda

Papias Nteziyaremye, Jackson Cherutoi, Jacqueline Makatiani, Théoneste Muhizi

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 42-56
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230212

Chemical composition and essential oil contents among essential oil-bearing plants are mostly influenced by different factors including ecological features of habitat. In this study, variation in yield and chemical composition of essential oils (EOs) from the leaves of Cupressus lusitanica Mill. (Cupressaceae) in different regions of Rwanda was investigated. Extraction of essential oils from fresh leaves of C. lusitanica collected in March 2021 and April, 2021 from three different ecological zones of Rwanda, Buberuka highland zone (Burera), Central plateau zone (Huye) and Eastern savannah zone (Kayonza) was realized through steam distillation. The chemical compositions of distilled EOs were analyzed using both Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while their yields were determined by simple calculus. The average yields of the EOs were 0.27 ± 0.02, 0.34 ± 0.02 and 0.39 ± 0.01% (v/w) for Burera, Huye and Kayonza, respectively. Results of FT-IR analysis were confirmed by those of GC-MS analysis, and indicated the presence of different groups of compounds including aliphatic alkanes, carboxylic acids, alkenes, aldehydes, aromatics and ketones in the EOs. GC-MS results revealed that sabinene (20.84%), myrcene (19.63%), α-pinene (10.23%) and δ-3-carene (10.13%) were the dominant chemical constituents for EOs of C. lusitanica from Burera. Umbellulone (24.21%), δ-3-carene (16.76%), sabinene (10.54%) and α-pinene (8.21%) were the main constituents for EOs of C. lusitanica from Huye, while γ-terpinene (18.77%), umbellulone (18.16%), isobornyl acetate (9.972%), and myrcene (7.20%) were the major components of EOs of C. lusitanica from Kayonza. The current results demonstrated an intraspecific variation in content and chemical profile of C. lusitanica EOs from one geographical region to another. The observed variations are mostly due to the interactions of C. lusitanica species with climatic and environmental conditions of ecological habitat. However, it could also be the effects of various biotic factors, as well as maturity of plant and stage of plant growth. Further studies are needed to establish the influence of different geo-climatic and environmental factors on each single major component of C. lusitanica EOs.

Open Access Review Article

Derivatizing Reagents for Detection of Organic Compounds By HPLC

Pooja T. Chhanikar, Krishna R. Gupta, Milind J. Umekar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i230207

Derivatization is the process of chemically modifying a compound to develope a new compound which has properties that are suitable for analysis using HPLC. Derivatization improves the detectability of a target analyte by reaction with suitable derivatizing agent. Derivatization reactions are simple chemical modification of substance that make it compatible with the selected separation method or transforms substance with a low UV- absorption into highly sensitive product. Derivatization reactions in liquid chromatography modify the solutes adding a chomophore for easy UV detection or a fluorophore for sensitive fluorescent detection. The chemical structure of the compound remains same and just modifies the specific functional group for reacting compounds to derivative of deviating chemical and physical properties in order to make them detectable. Introduction of certain elements or groups through chemical derivatization may enhance the detector’s response helpful for the elucidation of structure of analytes. In conclusion, the present review describe various derivatization reagents for pre-column and post column derivatization process in HPLC by UV-visible and fluorescence detection are summarized along with reactions and some practical aspects. The commonly used derivatizing reagents in HPLC are 1-fluoro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene, ninhydrine, 4-N-N-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4’-sulfonyl chloride, benzoyl chloride, phenyl isocyanate for UV-visible detection and o-phthalaldehyde, fluorescamine, 1-dimethylaminonapthalene-5-sulfonyl chloride (DNS-Cl), 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (Fmoc-Cl), benzofurans for Fluorescence detection.