Open Access Original Research Article

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles using Delonix regia Extract, Characterization and its Application as Adsorbent for Removal of Cu (II) Ions from Aqueous Solution

Ahmed M. Abu-Dief, Laila H. Abdel-Rahman, M. A. Abd– ElSayed, Mallak Megalea Zikry

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130202

In this research synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a green method is studied. The high importance of silver nanoparticles using extract of Delonix regia (DREAgNs) is due to their unique properties, such as non-expensive, easily available and have application in water treatment. Synthesized silver nanoparticles AgNPs were characterized using UV-Visible Spectrophotometer to indicate the synthesis of AgNPs by green methods. The maximum absorbance of UV-Vis. analysis at wavelength 464 nm. (FT-IR) spectra to indicate the functional groups of phytochemical compounds at Delonix regia extract (DRE) and the silver nanoparticles (DREAgNPs) and also shows the role of active chemical constituents in stabilization and reduction of (DREAgNPs). Based on the transmission electron microscopy image analyses (TEM) confirmed the formation of spherical DREAgNPs with a particle size range of 20-50 nm with an average particle size of 35 nm. The Cu2+ ion adsorption process was studied by (DREAgNPs). The Cu2+ ions removal efficiency (R. E.) is 88.4 %   at an initial concentration 15 ppm. Removal efficiency (R. E.) decreases as the Cu2+ ion concentration increases.  Furthermore, thermodynamic studies confirmed that the biosorption process was endothermic and the positive value of ΔG° is quite common when an ion-exchange mechanism applies in the biosorption. The Positive value of ΔS◦ suggested an increase in randomness during the biosorption. The Freundlich isotherm has a good fit with the experimental data (R2 =0.99) compared to Langmuir isotherm (R2 = 0.90). This study shows that DREAgNPs are available, low cost, effective and environment friendlly biosorbent for the removal of Cu2+ ions from aqueous environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization, Swiss ADME and Antimicrobial Activity of Copper (II) Complex with 2-Sulfanilamidopyrimidine: Through DFT Spectroscopic with Profound Biological Implications

Mohd. Washid Khan, Ravi Prakash Mishra, Bhavesh Patel, Shradha Patel, Sujit Gupta, Souvik Sen

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 16-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130203

Sulphadiazine and their copper metal complexes are dexterous ligands, which are condensation products of primary amines with carbonyl compounds gaining importance day by day in the present scenario. Spectral characterization and examination of the potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the synthesized complex were performed. The imine Cu(II) complex is characterized by FTIR and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The Stoichiometric M:L ratio was determined by Joe and Jones method. These compounds and their copper metal complex are very important in various biological systems and their medicinal and pharmaceutical fields. Schiff foundations show beneficial natural functions such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anticonvulsant, antitubercular, anticancer, antioxidant, anthelmintic, and antiglycation. The present review summarizes information on the diverse biological activities and also highlights the recently synthesized numerous Schiff bases and their metal complex  as potential bioactive core.

Open Access Original Research Article

Applied Studies on Application of Capric/Caprylic MCT Oils in Food Industries

Rabie S. Farag, Hanafy A. Hashem, Abdel-Al Rahman Naser, Montaser. A. Mohamed

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 33-63
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130204

Non healthy oils & fats consumption in foods is the major reason of obesity in human beings.

Common cooking oils & fats are composed of medium and long chain triglycerides. Each triglyceride consist of fatty acids called medium and long chain fatty acids abbreviated as (MCFAs & LCFAs). The ratio of LCFAs is mostly higher than the MCFAs in common cooking oils to be to be suitable for heat stress applications like cooking and frying. On the other side there is natural dietary fats are rich in Medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) like coconut oil and dairy fats. Also there are synthetic medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) oils which are synthetized by a processes called fractionation that extracts the MCFAs as caprylic and capric acid from the other fatty acids in the coconut or palm kernel oil.

The MCFAs, shows substantial metabolic advantage compared to LCFAs. MCFAs are a preferred source of energy (b-oxidation). The last 20 years studies confirmed the potential of MCFAs to reduce body weight and may reduce fasting lipid levels more than oils rich in LCFAs. The same is true for glucose levels.

In this study, the authors did chemical and instrumental studies on dietary structured MLCT and non-structured MCT/LCT cooking oils which were used for producing for weight reduction and obesity control purpose Capric /caprylic MCT oil was used as a source of MCFAs for producing of novel. Different sources of long-chain triglycerides (LCFAs) have been used including sunflower oil (SFO), Canola oil(CNO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSFO), palm oil (PO) and double fractionated palm olein (DFOlein).

The following techniques have been used for preparation of structured and non structured cooking oils in this study :

1-Physical blending.

2 - Chemical interesterification in a multipurpose batch reactor.

2- Enzymatic interesterification using immobilized Lipase enzyme in pilot scale packed bed reactor (PBR).

Different analytical and instrumental techniques were used in this study including Gas chromatography (GC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), Rancimate, and smoke point tester.

The study shown that the non-structured MCT/LCT oils gave reasonable heat stability, higher smoke points compared the structured MLCT oil which make it more suitable for cooking and frying applications.

 The chemical and enzymatic interesterification (CIE & EIE) technique yield a real structured MLCT oil which is more effective in caloric reduction and obesity control purpose during long term consumption in dietary foods, however, due to its much lower smoke point compared to its relative LCFAs oil so it will be suitable only for cold applications like salad dressing and other culinary applications. But not suitable for heat stress applications like deep or shallow frying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Analysis and Health Risk Assessment of Three Fish Species, Surface Water and Sediment Samples in Ogbaru Axis of River Niger, Anambra State, Nigeria

Opeyemi F. Ojaniyi, Patrice A. C. Okoye, Daniel O. Omokpariola

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 64-81
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130205

Human activities on environmental resources have negatively affected floras and faunas in maintaining fair balance. In this research study, selected heavy metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn) concentration in three fish species (Clarias gariepinus, Heterotis niloticus and Anguilla labiate), surface water and sediment samples in Ogbaru axis of River Niger, Anambra State, Nigeria. We evaluated the samples using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, Al, Cd) analysis in fish samples showed that Cr was detected in Clarias garipinus and Anguilla labiate with a concentration of 0.001mg/kg in both species but was not detected in Heterotis niloticus. Hg and Al were not detected in Anguilla labiate but both metals were detected in the other fish species with a mean concentration of 0.311mg/kg and 0.019mg/kg respectively for Clarias garipinus and 0.001mg/kg and 0.005mg/kg respectively for Heterotis niloticus. In decreasing order, the heavy metal concentration in Clarias garipinus in increasing order of Cu >Fe > Ni > Hg > Pb > Zn > As > Cd > Al > Cr, while Heterotis niloticus followed the order Cu > Zn > Fe > Ni > Pb > Cd > Al > As > Hg > Cr, and  Anguilla labiate followed the pattern of Cu > Fe > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > Cr > As > Hg > Al. For surface water, As (0.005mg/l), Cd (0.032 mg/l), Cr (0.099 mg/l), Cu (0.186 mg/l), Fe (2.308 mg/l), Hg (1.501 mg/l) and Pb (0.724 mg/l) showed high concentration for the raining season compared to dry season, as Al (0.246 mg/l), Ni (0.773 mg/l) and Zn (2.903 mg/l) were dominant during dry season, while sediment samples of Cr (0.112 mg/kg), Cu (0.029 mg/kg), Ni (0.945 mg/kg) and Pb (0.039 mg/kg) concentration in raining season were higher than dry season and vice versa for other As, Cd, Fe, Hg, Zn. Correlation matrices showed positive value showing that heavy metals were from a similar source with migration route and vice versa for negative correlation. Health and exposure risk assessment was conducted for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic exposure in adults and children, where the cumulative cancer risk was within USEPA regulatory standard (1.0E-6 – 1.0E-04) and cumulative hazard index were above 1 for adults (2.02) and children (4.93), implying that children are at risk of having adverse health issues compared to adults. Therefore, there is a need for regulatory advocacy and special care to mitigate anthropogenic release and safeguard the environment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Affination on Quality Parameters of White Sugar During Refining Process

T. S. A. Hammam, M. M. Zaghlool, Sanaa A. El-sherif, E. A. EL-Naggar, H. Ferweez

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 82-87
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v9i130206

At laboratories of Delta Sugar Company, Kafr El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, as well as Food science Department Faculty of Agriculture, Minia University, Egypt during 2019 working season was carried out this work.  It was particularly designed to evaluate the affination process of raw sugar at different temperatures on refined sugar quality parameters during sugar refining process under prevailing industrial conditions.

The obtained results revealed that there were a significant differences among raw cane sugar samples in the all studied physiochemical traits, i.e. moisture,  sucrose, reducing sugars, starch, dextran and color (ICUMSA units) except total sugars and ash % , Significant effect of dextran addition for sugar type, where white sugar was affected more than raw sugar, and added dextran level, significant effect of affination syrup temperature on physiochemical properties of white sugar, i.e. dextran, starch, sucrose, ash, and colour, except reducing sugars percent was non-significant     

it can be concluded from the present research that affination syrup temperature at 70oC is the best treatment under the study conditions regarding white sugar quality and can be recommended to the industry for further processing and quite near to the standards of white sugar.