Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Analysis of Selected Analgesic Syrups in Ibadan, Nigeria

F. O. Nnaneme

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330191

Some heavy metals have bio-importance as trace elements but the biotoxic effects of many of them in human biochemistry are of great concern. Hence, there is a need for proper understanding of mechanism involved, such as the concentrations and oxidation states, which make them harmful. This study determined the physical parameters and the mean concentrations of some heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Ca) in some analgesic syrups. The heavy metals presence in the syrups were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy after digestion. All analyses were repeated three times for each sample and the mean concentration of the heavy metals taken. The physical parameters showed that the syrups are of red colour, which had a clear solution with sweet tastes. They also gave different pH and density range values. The level of nickel in the samples ranges from 0.49mg/l to 4.12mg/l, cadmium concentration ranges from 1.1mg/l to 3.5mg/l and chromium ranges from 0.04mg/l to 0.49mg/l. The concentration of zinc ranged from 0.04mg/l to 0.67mg/l, lead ranged from -0.1mg/l to 0.7mg/l and mercury concentration ranges from 0.23mg/l to 0.91mg/l. Calcium concentration was not detected in the four samples studied. The concentrations of the studied metals were lower than the W.H.O standard limits, hence the studied syrups are safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Optimization of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil Using Acidified Clay Heterogeneous Catalyst

U. Onyekwelu Ijeoma, T. Nwabanne Jospeh, E. Onu Chijioke

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 9-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330192

The objective of the present work is to synthesize and characterizethe production of biodiesel from palm oil. Acid activated heterogeneous catalyst was used in the synthesis process. The clay was characterized using SEM. The effect of process variables such as reaction temperature, catalyst weight and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized in the design of experiment and modeling of the biodiesel production process. The biodiesel was characterized and compared to standard properties of biodiesel. The result showed that H2SO4 activation increased the surface area of the clay. In the RSM modeling, the maximum biodiesel yield obtained was 82.99% at reaction time of 5 hours, temperature of 140oC, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, and catalyst weight of 3.6 wt%. Quadratic model with correlation coefficient of 0.9657, best described the experimental data. The physio-chemical properties of the biodiesel synthesized were comparable to the properties of standard biodiesel. This study has shown that clay heterogeneous catalyst can be used to catalyst the synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil. The finding of this study is recommended for solving some of the challenges posed by the use of fossil fuel.