Open Access Short communication

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of Plumbagozeylanica L. Roots and Its Aphrodisiac Effect in Male Rats

Patrick Onen, Daniel Ocira, Timothy Omara, Jacob Nyeko, Augastine Okwir

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 24-31
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330193

Aim: To perform phytochemical screening of Plumbago zeylanica L. root extracts and assess the claim of its use in traditional management of erectile dysfunction in Uganda through evaluation of the aphrodisiac effect of its aqueous extracts in male Wistar rats.

Study Design: This study employed both qualitative and quantitative research designs.

Place and Duration of Study: All research work were performed at the Department of Biological Sciences, Gulu University, Gulu, Uganda between August 2019 and December 2019.

Methodology: Classical phytochemical screening of aqueous and methanolic extracts of Plumbago zeylanica roots were performed following standard methods. Aqueous extracts were administered to Male Wistar rats and the effect of the extracts on the mounting and intromission frequencies were determined.

Results: Glycosides, phenols, saponins, quinones, terpenoids and steroids were present in both methanolic and aqueous extracts. Alkaloids were present in methanolic extracts only while tannins and phlobatannins were only present in aqueous extracts. Flavonoids, coumarins and anthraquinones were not detected in both extracts. Aqueous root extracts of Plumbago zeylanica produced pro-sexual stimulatory effects in male rats when administered at 150, 300 and 450 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion: The results support the use of Plumbago zeylanicaroots by indigenous people in Uganda to increase libido, treat premature ejaculation and erectile dysfunction. The extracts had low sexual enhancement in sexually inexperienced male rats and therefore, further studies using experienced animal models are needed to better apprehend the prosexual effects of P. zeylanica roots. The toxicity of the extracts as well as structural elucidation and pharmacological evaluation of the responsible bioactive compounds merit further studies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Analysis of Selected Analgesic Syrups in Ibadan, Nigeria

F. O. Nnaneme

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330191

Some heavy metals have bio-importance as trace elements but the biotoxic effects of many of them in human biochemistry are of great concern. Hence, there is a need for proper understanding of mechanism involved, such as the concentrations and oxidation states, which make them harmful. This study determined the physical parameters and the mean concentrations of some heavy metals (Ni, Cd, Cr, Zn, Pb, Hg, and Ca) in some analgesic syrups. The heavy metals presence in the syrups were estimated by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy after digestion. All analyses were repeated three times for each sample and the mean concentration of the heavy metals taken. The physical parameters showed that the syrups are of red colour, which had a clear solution with sweet tastes. They also gave different pH and density range values. The level of nickel in the samples ranges from 0.49mg/l to 4.12mg/l, cadmium concentration ranges from 1.1mg/l to 3.5mg/l and chromium ranges from 0.04mg/l to 0.49mg/l. The concentration of zinc ranged from 0.04mg/l to 0.67mg/l, lead ranged from -0.1mg/l to 0.7mg/l and mercury concentration ranges from 0.23mg/l to 0.91mg/l. Calcium concentration was not detected in the four samples studied. The concentrations of the studied metals were lower than the W.H.O standard limits, hence the studied syrups are safe for human consumption.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization and Optimization of Biodiesel Produced from Palm Oil Using Acidified Clay Heterogeneous Catalyst

U. Onyekwelu Ijeoma, T. Nwabanne Jospeh, E. Onu Chijioke

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 9-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330192

The objective of the present work is to synthesize and characterizethe production of biodiesel from palm oil. Acid activated heterogeneous catalyst was used in the synthesis process. The clay was characterized using SEM. The effect of process variables such as reaction temperature, catalyst weight and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized in the design of experiment and modeling of the biodiesel production process. The biodiesel was characterized and compared to standard properties of biodiesel. The result showed that H2SO4 activation increased the surface area of the clay. In the RSM modeling, the maximum biodiesel yield obtained was 82.99% at reaction time of 5 hours, temperature of 140oC, methanol to oil ratio of 10:1, and catalyst weight of 3.6 wt%. Quadratic model with correlation coefficient of 0.9657, best described the experimental data. The physio-chemical properties of the biodiesel synthesized were comparable to the properties of standard biodiesel. This study has shown that clay heterogeneous catalyst can be used to catalyst the synthesis of biodiesel from palm oil. The finding of this study is recommended for solving some of the challenges posed by the use of fossil fuel.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination and Analysis of Metals in Freshwater Microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis) through Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TXRF)

J. I. Bungudu, Lorrie M. Murphy

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 32-38
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330194

This work investigates the concentration of some trace elements in freshwater microalgae ( Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis) through total reflection x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). Slurry samples were prepared from 3.4 ± 0.5 to 9.8 ± 0.5 mg of freeze-dried algae biomass for direct metals analysis. Gallium was used as internal standard at concentration of 500 µg/L and the solution was mixed for 15 second using vortex. The concentrations of different metals including Magnesium (Mg), Zinc (Zn), Phosphorus (P), Sulphur (S), Copper (Cu), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Manganese (Mn) and Iron (Fe) were determined in the ranged 6.8 ± 1.7 – 15709 mg/kg. A similar study investigated the total macro and micronutrient profile Chlorella vulgaris and the published data agree with current study. Statistical analysis shows that only Ba has significant difference between Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis (P = 0.05) The two investigated algal species shows a measurable concentration using TXRF of metals such as manganese, iron, copper, and zinc. TXRF shows good accuracy with ability to determine sample in small quantities (µl) In conclusion, the sensitivity of TXRF technique can also be seen in determining elements with lower atomic number such as Ca, P and K.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sonication of Petrochemical Industry Wastewaters

Rukiye Oztekin, Delia Teresa Sponza

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 39-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2021/v8i330195

The objective of the study was the treatment of the pollutants (dissolved chemical oxygen demand (CODdis), total organic carbon (TOC) and total and individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)) present in the petrochemical industry wastewater (PCI) by sonication. The effects of increasing sonication times (0 min, 60 min, 120 and 150 min), sonication temperatures (25oC, 30oC and 60oC), on the CODdis, TOC and (PAH) removal efficiencies were researched at a sonication frequency of 35 kHz and a sonication power of 640. All the PAHs and their metabolites were measured by an gas chromatography (Agilent 6890 NC) equipped with a mass selective detector (Agilent 5973 inert MSD) with a capillary column (HP5-MS, 30 m, 0.25mm, 0.25µm)). The CH4, CO2 and H2 gas analysis, CODdis, TOC and the other pollutants were measured according to Standard Methods. As the sonication time and temperature were increased from 60 to 120 and 150 min, and from 25oC to 30oC and to 60oC, the CODdis, total PAH and TOC yields increased from 80.16% to 92.15%, from 78.37% to 94.23% and from 79.65% to 96.90%, respectively. The PAHs intermediates namely, 1–methylnaphthalene, 9–hydroxyfluorene, 9,10–phenanthrenequione, benzoic acid, 1,2,3–thiadiazole–4–carboxylic acid, naphthalene, p–hydroxybenzoic acid, fluorene, di–hydroxy pyrene, pyrene di–hydrodiol were sonodegraded with yields of 92.11%, 95.23%, 98.42%, 97.34%, 99.44%, 96.30%, 99.36%, 97.17%, 99.63% and 99.98% respectively, after 150 min, at 25oC. The presence of CH4, H2 and CO2 gases during sonication showed that the degradation mechanism of the PAHs is ‘‘pyrolysis”.