Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metals Content of Common Tubers from Selected Farm Locations in Enugu North District, South East, Nigeria

Fredrick C. Asogwa, Ebo Paul, Gerald W. Ugodi, Chioma J. Asogwa

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v7i230176

The concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, As, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), yam (Dioscorea ssp), and cassava (Manihot esculenta) in four farm locations in some local government areas of Enugu North District was determined. Samples were prepared following standard procedure and digested with a 5:1:1 mixture of trioxonitrate (V) acid, tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid, and perchloric acid as previously reported. Metal concentration was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer 1100B model). The range of heavy metals concentration recorded for sweet potato in the four farm locations were 60.26±2.30-312.66±31.24 mg/kg, 20.06±1.27-40.55±4.08 mg/kg, 12.60±2.00-32.06±3.20 mg/kg, 8.20±3.00-15.00±1.07 mg/kg, 0.05±0.07-0.80±1.27 mg/kg, 0.07±0.42-0.18±0.42 mg/kg, 0.01±0.20-0.09±0.03 mg/kg and 0.02±0.07-0.03±0.08 mg/kg respectively for Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cr, Pb, As and Cd while the range in yam was 18.46±2.05-380.20±10.97 mg/kg, 44.20±4.99-66.30±3.87 mg/kg, 17.80±2.18-56.08±6.73 mg/kg, 12.00±2.00-42.30±0.06 mg/kg, 0.01±0.32-0.42±0.27 mg/kg, 0.02±0.07-0.20±0.12 mg/kg, 0.04±2.03-0.10±0.00 mg/kg and 0.01±0.07-0.08±0.47 mg/kg for Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, As and Cd respectively. In cassava, the concentration range was 74.20±10.97-312.20±31.20 mg/kg, 14.20±1.29-38.22±6.07 mg/kg, 10.88±3.03-32.00±0.70 mg/kg, 3.20±0.20-11.20±1.09 mg/kg, 0.01±0.20-0.18±1.27 mg/kg, 0.02±0.03-0.12±0.07 mg/kg, 0.01±0.03-0.10±0.07 mg/kg and 0.03±0.00-0.05±0.42 mg/kg for Mn, Ni, Zn,Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd and As respectively. While Cd was not detected in farm location B and D in all the tuber samples, arsenic was detected in all the samples except in cassava cultivated in farm location B. All the heavy metals analyzed were each below the World Health Organization (WHO) permissible concentration except chromium which was slightly higher than the recommended limit of 0.05 mg/kg. Apart from 0.80±1.27 mg/kg Cr recorded for sweet potato cultivated in location C, the concentration of chromium in all the tubers were below the China’s State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) permissible limit of 0.5 mg/kg. Hence, risk assessment of Cr intake was recommended to ascertain the level of human exposure to Cr through the consumption of these tubers in the study area

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Analysis of Selected Toilet Soaps in Saudi Arabia Markets

E. E. Shehata

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 7-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v7i230177

Soap is sodium or potassium salt of fatty acid produced by saponification reaction. The physicochemical properties of soaps determine their quality and hence determine their efficiency. Four toilet soaps from local markets in Saudi Arabia were analyzed for moisture, pH, free caustic alkali or free fatty acid, total fatty matter and insoluble matter in alcohol. The percentage of the moisture ranged between (3.0534±0.1782 -5.1235±0.4891 %), total fatty matter (79.6907± 0.0534 - 94.8253 ± 0.0622), insoluble matter in alcohol (0.7939± 0.0134 - 1.0368± 0.0234% (and there is no excess free caustic alkali. However, the pH values between (8.715±0.0219 - 9.745±0.0212). This study showed that the percent of moisture, free caustic alkali, insoluble matter, total fatty matter and pH values for different samples found to be in limited range. Finally, the percentage of free fatty acid are (1.0433±0.0813 -1.4107±0.1731%). The soaps analyzed proved to be of high quality and meet the standard values.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using the Natural Fixative from Canarium Resin of Vietnam

Le Huy Hai, Le Mai Xuan Truc

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 33-39
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v7i230179

Aim and Objectives: Nowadays, the fixative substance from natural materials is gradually replacing the fixative substance that has been synthesized from chemicals. The purpose of the study in this research is that we created a natural fragrance from Vietnamese raw material with a fixative from Canarium Album (Lour) as a natural fixative to replace artificial fixative.  Canarium plant is scientifically known as Canarium Album (Lour) Raensch of the Burseraceae family. Canarium Album L. is distributed in most of Northern provinces, central Highlands, and Southeast of Vietnam.

Materials and Methods: The method of this process is resin extraction by volatile solvents.  We use a knife to cut into the trunk and let the resin run out, then harvest this resin to make fixative. The resin is dissolved in alcohol 96% and the distilled alcohol is removed to obtain absolute Canarium. Evaluation method of the ability of absolute Canarium is performed by comparing it with other fixatives in fragrances. Raw canarium resins is taken directly from canarium plants then refined absolute canarium as the natural fixative. We use this fixative substance in combinations of floral, woody smells and comparison with traditional artificial fixative as Musk ketone, Musk xylene, Musk ambrette.

Results: The comparison results show that the ability to keep the fragrance of scent is lower than musk ambrette, musk ketone but it is better than musk xylene. Thus, canarium resin can be used as a natural fixative to replace artificial fixative in fragrance.

Conclusions: Through research and experiment, we can see Canarium resin is precious. It can be used as a good fixative in aromatherapy. This is a natural resin, a kind of resource available in Vietnam. Therefore, it is recommended for further research, exploitation, and effective use of this resource.

Open Access Review Article

Antidiabetic Activity of 40 Plants of the Senegalese Flora, an Important Therapeutic Diversity for Populations

Ousmane Faye, Cheikh Sall, Omar Kane

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 15-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v7i230178

Diabetes mellitus is group of a metabolic desorder caused by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. It is a major public health problem in all countries of the world. In Africa, it was predicted that the continent, will see the greatest increase, from 19 millions in 2019 to 47 million diabetics in 2045. In the absence of sufficient public health care coverage and the high cost of modern medicine, major part of the population of developing countries turns to traditional medicine. These medicine offer a new alternative for the management of diabetes from plant organs. Most of the used part of plants has not yet been scientifically approved by researchers. In this article, we have inventorised the medicinal plants of the Senegalese flora used in the management of diabetes and whose activity has been validated scientifically by researchers.

Open Access Review Article

Physicochemical Research of Mineral and Mountain Spring Waters in Bulgaria

Ignat Ignatov

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 40-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v7i230180

In Bulgaria is observed a great variety of spring waters. They are mineral and mountain spring waters. According to their temperature they can be cold (up to 37° С), warm (from 37° C to 60° C) and hot (over 60° C). This is Bulgarian standard, European Union.

The mountain spring waters are cold with temperature up to 25° С.

In Bulgaria for drinking mineral and mountain spring waters are valid Ordinance No 9 / 2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and decree No. 178 / 23.07.2004.

By their chemical composition they fall into three categories – low mineralized (up to 2 g/L), moderately mineralized (2 to 15 g/L) and highly mineralized (15 – 30 g/L). According to their chemical composition the mineral waters are divided into sulphate, sulfide, hydrogen carbonate, chloride and carbonic. With regards to their gas composition they are nitrogen, sea and carbonic waters.

The objective of the current study is to show springs examined by physicochemical parameters and correspond to Ordinance No 9 / 2001, Official State Gazette, issue 30, and decree No 178 / 23.07.2004 about the quality of water intended for drinking and household purposes.

In the current study mineral waters and mountain spring waters from mountain regions of Bulgaria have been studied. It is well known that in the mountain areas of Bulgaria live the most of long-living people and centenarians. The studies are conducted by microbiological laboratory of Trakia University, Stara Zagora headed by Nedyalka Valcheva, accredited laboratory Eurotest Control, and the laboratory of Scientific Research Center of Medical Biophysics.