Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of African Basil (Ocimum gratissimum L.) Leaves

Winfred Nassazi, Isaac O. K’Owino, Jacqueline Makatiani, Sabina Wachira

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i430166

Aim: To determine the phytochemicals in Ocimum gratissimum leaves, their phenolic content, antioxidant potential and antiproliferative activity against human prostate (DU145), colon (CT26) and cervical (HeLa 229) cancer cells.

Place and Duration of the Study: Leaves of O. gratissimum were collected from cultivated plants in Wakiso district of Uganda. The samples were analyzed at Directorate of Government Analytical Laboratory, Kampala (Uganda) and Kenya Medical Research Institute, Centre for Traditional Medicine and Drug Research, Nairobi (Kenya) between August 2019 and January 2020. 

Methodology: The leaves were separately extracted by maceration using hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The methanolic extract was further fractionated and subjected to solid phase extraction. Antiproliferative assay was done using dimethylthiazol-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide assay while total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay respectively. Compounds were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Results: A total of 34 compounds were identified in the fractions. The highest mean total phenolic content was 401.07 ± 6.47 µg/ml for the methanolic extract which also had the highest antioxidant activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 5.79 ± 0.13 mg/ml. There was a positive correlation between the antioxidant activity of the extracts and antiproliferative activity of the extracts on prostate and cervical cancer cell lines. The extracts exhibited the highest toxicity against prostate cancer cells and the least against cervical cancer cells.

Conclusion: The results of this study support the traditional use of this plant in cancer therapy in Uganda. Further research should isolate pure anticancer compounds from this plant which could act as lead candidates in the development of anticancer drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption, Kinetic, Equilibrium, Thermodynamic and Photocatalytic Investigations of the Removal of Nigrosin, Alizarin, Indigo and Acid Fuchsin Dyes on Modified CaO Surface

Mouayed A. Hussein, Ibtighaa K. Radhi, Zaki N. Kadhim

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 19-32
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i430167

Calcium oxide was obtained from eggshell and modified with Sulfur, Nitrogen and, Oxygen. The adsorbents were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The adsorbents were used for the removing of the dyes of Nigrosin, Alizarin red S, Indigo carmine, and Acid fuchsin from their aqueous solutions. The adsorption isotherm experiments were studied, and the equilibrium adsorption found either obeyed the Langmuir or Freundlich isotherm depending on the Sips isotherm results. Thermodynamic studies showed that the adsorption processes of the studied dyes were spontaneous, endothermic and randomness increases according to their ΔG, ΔH and ΔS values, respectively. The kinetic studies revealed that the pseudo second-order model best represented adsorption kinetics. Moreover, the photocatalytic ability of adsorbents was investigated under the sunlight, the results revealed the adsorbents have a strong photo-catalytic ability to absorb the dyes, particularly that observed for Acid fuchsin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mobility of Chromium, Copper and Arsenic in Amended Chromated Copper Arsenate Contaminated Soils

Caroline Kiwanuka Nakiguli, Walter Ojok, Timothy Omara, John Wasswa, Emmanuel Ntambi

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 33-48
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i430168

Aim: The use of copper-based preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and creosote to prolong the life of lumber present environmental concerns because they contain heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are toxic to humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sewage sludge biosolid amendment on the distribution and mobility of chromium, copper and arsenic in chromated copper arsenate contaminated soils subjected to phytoremediation using maize (Zea mays L.).

Place and Duration of the Study: Random composite soil samples from Kitetika wood factory, Wakiso, Uganda and sewage sludge biosolid from National Water and Sewerage Corporation plant in Bugolobi, Kampala, Uganda were collected and prepared. Maize grains were obtained from FICA Seeds Limited (Uganda). The pot experiments and analysis of samples were done at Mbarara University of Science and Technology (Mbarara) and Directorate of Government Analytical Laboratory, Kampala (Uganda), respectively. 

Methodology: The fresh CCA contaminated soils and sewage sludge biosolid were analyzed for physicochemical parameters and heavy metals (chromium, copper and arsenic). Sewage sludge biosolid was added to 1 kg of the contaminated soils at 5-25% (w/w) in 2 L plastic containers, watered and maintained at 25 ℃ for 14 days to stabilize. Controls were set up with unamended soils. Thereafter, maize was planted in the potted soils for 40 days. The concentrations of the trace metals in the soils were determined after 20 and 40 days of maize growth by atomic absorption spectroscopy.

Results: The concentrations of chromium, copper and arsenic in fresh CCA contaminated soils were 365.8 ± 6.18 mg/kg, 109.72 ± 14.04 mg/kg and 28.22 ± 3.8 mg/kg, respectively. Basing on mobility factor, bioavailability of the trace metals followed the chemical sequence copper (8.9%) < chromium (17.1%) < arsenic (30.2%).

Conclusion: The maize variety experimented could be used to phytoextract or phytostabilize the trace metals in the CCA contaminated soils without or with 5-25% amendment. Amendment with sewage sludge biosolid improved the phytoremediation potential of maize. Arsenic was the most mobile and bioavailable metal in CCA contaminated soils. Further studies should use other local maize varieties such as Longe series.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Profiling of Roasted Mustard Oils of Khokana, Nepal

Sabita Dangol, Sumnath Khanal, Prabodh Satyal, Achyut Adhikari

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 49-58
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i430169

Background: Khokana, commonly known as “the living museum” of Nepal is famous for “the roasted mustard oil”. People have been using oil for a long time ago and it is trusted that roasted mustard oil has many health benefits. Detail chemical profiling of roasted mustard oil of Khokana has not been reported yet.

Objectives: Detail chemical profiling of roasted mustard oil and chemical variations in different seeds available for roasting.

Methods: Three different roasted mustard oils (Nepali, Indian, and other origins seeds) were taken for chemical profiling of oil. The GC/MS of all samples was analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometer Shimadzu GCMS-QP2010 Ultra.

Results: The GC/MS of all samples were carried out and the GC-MS analysis revealed that Nepali (brown seed) and other origins (yellow seed) sample showed erucic acid as a major compound with almost 40-50%. Nepali oil showed gamma-tocopherol (<1%) which is a potent antioxidant. Whereas Indian mustard (black seed) oil showed cis-oleic acid as a major compound with 50-60% and Erucic acid was below 1% in Indian seed oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physico-Chemical Analysis of Various Samples of Tomato Ketchup

Patil Pandurang N., Fatima H. Al Moqbali, Mizna A. Al Rabaani, Nada A. Al Ghaithi

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 59-66
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i430170

Aim of our present study was to analyze physico-chemical properties of tomato ketchup samples available in the local market. Major part of tomato consumption comes under processed products like tomato juice, ketchup and sauce. Recent studies have indicated the potential health benefits of a diet that are rich in tomatoes. Study of various physico-chemical parameter testing of four different types of tomato ketchup samples. Study was performed in Department of Applied Sciences, Chemistry section, University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Muscat, Oman during the September 2017 – April 2018. 

We have selected four different tomato ketchup samples from the local brand and tested for their various physical and chemical parameters such as, pH, conductivity, viscosity, solubility, acidity total, moisture, ash, vitamin C, sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium. We have used routine and simple techniques for analysis. Such as some chemical methods, Flame photometer etc.  We have found that, pH was in the range of 3.6 – 3.8, conductivity 5.38 – 8.71 MS/cm, viscosity 3.93 – 6.76 Pa s, solubility 53.35 – 61.12, titratable acidity 3.2 – 4.01 g/100 gm, (pH metric 3.6 – 4.3 g/100 gm), ash 1.62 – 2.98%, vitamin C 17.25 – 55.23 mg/100 gm, sodium 294.5 – 475.85 ppm, potassium 93.5 – 153.3 ppm, magnesium 106 – 163 ppm, calcium 67 – 117 ppm. The result found in our analysis was more or less close to each other. On the basis of result obtained during the analysis of four tomato ketchup samples Jumbo sample was good amount of vitamin C, less ash value lowest sodium content.