Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-Temporal Study of Criteria Pollutants in Nigerian City

L. C. Anyika, C. O. Alisa, A. U. Nkwoada, A. I. Opara, E. N. Ejike, G. N. Onuoha

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i330160

Aims: An investigation of characteristic long term air pollutants known for temporal and spatial behaviors was conducted due to increased pollution scenarios in Nigerian cities as a result of deprived environmental enforcement of statutory obligations.

Study Design: One of the worlds’ most polluted cities (Onitsha lower basin) in Nigeria was selected for spatio-temporal study of three criteria pollutants combined with GIS and MATLAB alongside associated meteorological conditions during harmattan.

Methodology: 72-hourly analyses of the nine different locations having 4 sampling sites and 500 meters apart were done from December to February which generated over 19, 440 experimental data per quarter of each annual study.

Results: Upper Iweka/Nitel area recorded the highest concentration of SO2 pollutant at (94.2 µg/m3) due to longer residence times and low wind mixing height. Borromeo hospital showed the least active NO2 region but converges at points 1 due to North-east wind dissimilar to sampling points 1 having the lowest PM10 distribution. Measured temperature parameter correlates inversely with relative humidity and precipitation. The GIS spatial representation corresponded to temporal variability of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

Conclusion: All sampled areas had AQI above 50; hence the study identified SO2, NO2, and PM10 as Primary pollutants of Onitsha lower basin.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Screening, GC-MS Analysis and Antioxidant Activity of Three Medicinal Plants From Nigeria

Ezekwe Ahamefula S., Ordu Kenneth S., Oruamabo Ralphael S.

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 14-26
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i330162

Phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants were investigated using standard methods. Leaves of Gongronema latifolium, Petrocarpus mildbraedii, and Piper guineense plants were prepared properly and used in the entire study. Results of phytochemical screening for the plants revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, phenolic compounds, reducing sugars amongst others at different concentrations. Results of GC-MS analysis for G.latifolium showed a total of thirty-three compounds of which Cyclohexano, 2-l(methlaminomethyl)-trans had the highest retention time, squalene had the highest molecular weight and phytol had the highest peak area. GC-MS result for P.mildbraedii revealed a total of twenty-three of which Acatamide,2,2,2-trichloro- had the highest retention time, Erucic acid had the highest molecular weight whereas n-Hexadecanoic acid the highest peak area. Only ten compound were observed in P.guineense of  which Ethyl (3-hydroxyphenyl) carbamate had the highest retention time, Benzaminde, N-(4,5-dichloro-1,3-benzothiazol-2yl)-3,5-dimethoxy- had the highest molecular weight and Benzene, 1,2,3-trimethoxy-5-(2-propenyl)- has the highest peak area in P. guineense. The antioxidant activity of the plant extracts as assessed, followed the order P.guineense > G.latifolium> P. mildbraedii in comparative with ascorbic acid used as the control. The observed compounds become very important when the usefulness of these plants as medicinal plants are considered. They could as well be behind the antioxidant property of the plants in this study. This study has revealed the phytochemical screening, GC-MS analysis and antioxidant activity of some medicinal plants.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Water Quality Index and Heavy Metal Contents of Underground Water Sources in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

Obaje Daniel Opaluwa, Yahaya Mohammed, Suwabat Mamman, Ademu Tanko Ogah, Danjuma Ali

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 27-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i330163

Water quality index and heavy metal contents of underground water sources in Doma Local Government Area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria was assessed to ascertain the suitability of the water for domestic purpose. Physicochemical parameters; temperature, turbidity, TDS, TSS, pH, EC, total hardness, alkalinity, chloride, nitrate and sulphates in the water samples were determined using standard methods of analysis. The water quality index (WQI) was also evaluated using known standard method. The heavy metal contents were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. The results of the physicochemical analyses shows that in borehole and hand dug well water, the respective mean values were temperature (27.11±0.45 and 27.41±0.55 °C), turbidity (1.51±0.54 and 2.56±1.04 NTU), TDS (230.00±87.75 and 358.67±91.46 mg/dm3), TSS (3.64±1.25 and 4.17±4.17 mg/dm3), pH (5.63±0.69 and 6.60±0.95), EC 277.16 and 296.29±26.52 µS/cm), total hardness (90.00±15.55 and 125.13±16.33 mg/dm3), alkalinity (8.87±.083 and 9.24±1.08 mg/dm3), chloride (20.59±14.62 and 21.22±10.13 mg/dm3, nitrate (0.024±0.04 and 0.01±0.01 mg/dm3) and sulphates (1.05±0.74 and 2.09±0.45 mg/dm3). It was revealed that all the physicochemical parameters for both borehole and hand dug well water had values that were within the standard permissible values recommended by regulatory bodies, NSDWQ and WHO except for the pH of the borehole water which was not within the recommended range and which showed the water to be slightly acidic and which could attributable to the nature of the host rocks. WQI for borehole and hand dug well water were 29.65 and 27.38 respectively with the implication that both water sources presented good water quality for drinking based on the water quality index and water quality status. The results of the heavy metal analyses shows that in borehole and hand dug well water, the respective mean values were Cd (0.003±0.002 and 0.010±0.002 mg/dm3), Cr (0.187±0.075 and 0.19±0.070 mg/dm3), Cu (0.040±0.010 and 0.804±0.805 mg/dm3), Fe (0.500±0.330 and 0.916±0.543 mg/dm3), Pb (0.010±0.010 and 0.015±0.007 mg/dm3) and Zn (0.290±0.120 and 0.072±0.072 mg/dm3). The results shows that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn for both borehole and hand dug well water had mean values that were within the standard permissible values recommended by NSDWQ and WHO while Cr and Fe had mean values that were higher and which can be attributed to anthropogenic activities close to the water sources. It is recommended the groundwater in these selected communities be monitored regularly and that there is the need for the water to be treated before use because of those parameters that are off the standards to avoid associated health risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Bio-active Compounds Essential for Blood Coagulation in the Crude Extracts of Tradescantia zebrina, Tagetes minuta and Codiaeum variegatum Leaves

Gakuo Grace, Osano Aloys, Bakari Chaka

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 41-52
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i330164

Aims: Many commercial drugs used for blood clotting are expensive and have associated side-effects.  The extracts of Tagetes minuta, Codieum variegatum and Tradescantia zebrine are used for blood clotting. These extracts are highly efficient and have no known side-effects. This study aimed at characterizing crude extracts of these plant species used to accelerate blood clotting.

Study Design: An independent measures experimental design was used in the study.

Place and duration of study: The research was conducted between 21st September, 2018 and 21st May, 2019. The study was conducted in Maasai mara university, Kenya and Multimedia university of Kenya.

Methodology: Extracts of these herbs were obtained and analyzed for absorption bands, functional groups, bio-metal concentrations, physical-chemical parameters, phytochemicals and antimicrobial activity. Test for blood clotting factors (calcium and vitamin K) was also conducted.

Results: All extracts had common functional group peaks at 2800-3500 cm-1 (carboxylic OH), 1680 cm-1 (carbonyl), and 1035cm-1 (C-Ostretch). The extracts had an average pH of 6.59 0.702 and conductivity of 0.58 0.079mS. The average solubility in distilled water was 16.67 1.534 g/100 ml water at 37°C. The extracts were found to be abundant in iron, copper and phytochemicals. All extracts portrayed moderate inhibition to E. coli bacteria and C. albicans fungi but mild inhibition towards S. aureus bacteria. The extracts had trace amounts of Vitamin K and moderate amounts of calcium.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Indigenous Reed (Typha latifolia) Salt and Iodized Commercial Salt on Total Phenolic and Total Flavonoid Contents and Antioxidant Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.)

Thandiwe Alide, Phanice Wangila, Ambrose Kiprop

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 53-59
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i330165

Aim: The use of natural food additives such as garlic, ginger, turmeric and indigenous reed salts is increasing over synthetic ones due to their availability, affordability and the mental picture that ‘‘natural is safe’’. Food is usually cooked in the presence of other additives such as salt. It has been established that food additives (such as salt) and their degradation products can interact with other food additives and food constituents (additive-additive, additive-micronutrient) to form an array of products and these can have positive or negative effects on the antioxidant activity of the other additives and the food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of indigenous reed salt (Typha latifolia) and iodized commercial salt (Kensalt) used in Kenyan culinary recipes on the total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidant activity of garlic.

Place and Duration of the Study: Garlic bulbs and iodized commercial salt (Kensalt) were purchased from Khethia supermarket and Food Plus mall of Eldoret town (Kenya), respectively. Indigenous reed salt was purchased from vendors in Busia County of Western Kenya. The samples were analyzed at Directorate of Government Analytical Laboratory, Kampala (Uganda) between August 2019 and January 2020. 

Methodology: The TPC of fresh and salted garlic extracts were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay, TFC by aluminum chloride colorimetric method and antioxidant activity by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay.

Results: The TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of fresh aqueous garlic extract were 303.07 ± 6.58 mg gallic acid equivalent per 100 g, 109.68 ± 6.78 mg quercetin equivalent per 100 g and 56.60 ± 0.05%, respectively. Salt had a significant effect on TPC (P = .03) and antioxidant activity (P ˂ 0.05). However, the mean differences were insignificant for the effect of salt on TFC (P = .66). Changes in salt concentrations did not significantly affect the TPC, TFC and antioxidant activity of garlic.

Conclusion: Cooking garlic with salt enhances the extraction of its phytochemicals, thereby increasing its antioxidant potential.