Open Access Original Research Article

Degradation of Congo Red Dye Using Homogeneous Photo Fenton Catalyst Coupled with Oxygen Kinetics and Statistical Analysis

Mohammed Mahmmod Molla-Babaker, Shinwar Ahmed Idreesb

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130147

Experimental design DoE (box behnken design BBD) and statistical analysis approaches were employed to determine the effect of Congo red dye (C.R)  concentration, photo catalyst dose (Fe+2) and follow of oxygen gas as an oxidant on the degradation of C.R. The results show that the concentration oppositely affects the degradation yield whereas the remaining two factors show positive effect, throughout all experiments oxygen molecule shows crucial role in their positive effect with p-value about 0.01 which is very significant value. The accepted regression model was linear with significance p-value 0.032 that mean all factors show good agreement in linear relationship and the interactions was not important. Degradation kinetics was also applied to investigate the effect of increasing dye concentration on degradation rate constant with and without photo catalyst dose and oxidant (O2). It appears that the degradation of peak at 498nm is second order The result was in good agreement with that of statistical analysis that are 0.0435, 0.0545 and  5.4 M- min-  with photo catalysis 12, 8 and 4 PPM dye, 4O2 mL/min,20PPM Fe+2 respectively, in case without photocatalyst the results were 0.0025 and 0.0207 M- min-with 12 and 4 PPM in turn.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Phytochemical and Anti-microbial Studies of Leaf, Stem, Root of Spathodea companulata

C. E. Anarado, C. J. O. Anarado, N. L. Umedum, Q. M. Ogbodo

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 10-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130148

Aim: To compare the phytochemicals and anti bacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of Spathodea companulata.

Methodology: The leaf, stem and root of Spathodea companulata were collected, washed, air-dried, ground and each extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The extracts were analysed for the presence of phytochemicals. Antimicrobial analysis was also carried out on the extracts.

Results: Glycosides were present in all the extracts except stem aqueous extract. Steroids were found absent in most of the extracts except methanol stem and n-hexane root extracts. Saponins were found in methanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the root and stem, and in methanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Alkaloids were present in methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root, and in ethyl acetate and n- hexane extracts of the stem. Quantity of Alkaloids and tannins were higher in leaf, while flavonoids and glycosides were higher in the stem and the roots contained higher amount of saponins. The extraction solvent polarities played important role in the type of metabolites extracted. The stem extracts were found to be most active against the seven test organisms used.

Conclusion: More work should be done on the isolation and identification of compounds responsible for some of the pharmacological effects of the plant parts and the subsequent development of the compounds in formulation of drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hazard Quotient and Bioaccumulation Assessment of 26 Organochlorine Pesticides in Water, Sediment and Fish (Tilapia zilli) Warri River, Niger Delta Region - Southern Nigeria

Oghenekohwiroro Edjere, Justina Ukpebor, Felix E. Okieimen, Thomas Glaettli

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 21-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130149

A pesticide is any substance or mixture of substances used to destroy, suppress or alter the life cycle of any pest. Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been known to resist biodegradation, persist in the environment and thus can concentrate through food chains and produce a significant magnification that can pose severe toxic risk to human health. Bioaccumulation and concentration levels of 26 Organochlorine Pesticides were assessed in water, sediment and fish samples from the Warri River, Nigeria. Samples were collected across the two predominant seasons - rainy and the dry season. The results obtained reveal the presence of 22 of the investigated 26 OCPs in the dry season whereas 19 were detected in the rainy season. Results obtained revealed p,p’-DDT, γ-HCH, and aldrin as the most predominant pesticides detected in the water samples with concentrations of 0.588; 0.160 and 0.092 μg/L, respectively. γ-HCH, p’-DDD and aldrin (29.00; 23.00 and 22.00 ng/g, respectively) for the sediment samples. The most predominant contaminants in the fish samples were HCB, o,p’-DDT, γ-HCH (60.00; 29.00 and 27.00 ng/g, respectively). The Hazard Quotient (HQ) analysis was carried out on the fish samples collected revealed factors of 1.34 to 3.17 indicating a moderate hazard while the Bioaccumulation Index (BI) was found to be below 1 indicating their suitability for consumption. However, the risk of toxicity and bioaccumulation arising from long-term consumption of the OCP-contaminated fish may still exist.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Characterization of Schiff Base Complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) Derived from Ethylenediamine and Benzaldehyde Derivatives

Md. Shahinur Islam, Md. Rezaul Haque Ansary, Md. Akhter Farooque, Md. Ali Asraf

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 34-46
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130150

Metal complexes of Cu(II), Co(II) and Cd(II) have been synthesized using two new Schiff base ligands, N,N'-bis(4-chlorobenzylidene)ethane-1,2-diamine (L1) and N,N'-bis(3-nitrobenzylidene) ethane-1,2-diamine (L2). The Schiff bases were prepared from the condensation reaction of ethylenediamine with benzaldehyde derivatives (4-chlorobenzaldehyde and 3-nitrobenzaldehyde). The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, UV-visible, FT-IR and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The magnetic susceptibility measurements and UV-visible spectral data revealed that the geometry of Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes are square planar, whereas the geometry of Cd(II) complex is tetrahedral. The molar conductance data showed that the complexes are non-electrolytic in nature. The complexes were screened for antibacterial activities against four human pathogenic bacteria viz. Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicate that Cd(II) complex of ligand (L1) has higher antibacterial activity compared to the free ligands, but less than the standard drug, kanamycine. This suggests that the metal ion plays an important role in the antibacterial activities of complexes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Water Hyacinth Powder Using FTIR Spectroscopy and the Adsorption Behaviour of Pb2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cr2+ in Aqueous Solution

J. M. Munene, J. O. Onyatta, A. O. Yusuf

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 47-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130151

The adsorption behavior of selected metal ions on water hyacinth powder was investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Water hyacinth powder was used as an adsorbent due to its popularity, low cost and ease of availability. Water hyacinth stems were dried and ground to a powder. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted at room temperature by adding known concentrations of Pb2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ to 5 g of water hyacinth powder in different test tubes and allowed to stand for the same time respectively. Adsorption is one of the methods used to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions and wastewaters. FTIR analysis was performed to identify the functional groups in the water hyacinth powder using the KBr disc method. The study showed a strong broad absorption band in the region of 3300-3200cm-1 which is characteristic of O-H stretching vibrations of the adsorbed water molecules at the surface of raw water hyacinth powder particles. Other peaks appeared at 1732cm-1 which corresponded to C=O stretching vibrations while the band at 1396cm-1 could be attributed to C-H bonds. The functional groups identified were: C-H; O-H; C=O or C-O. After adsorption there was a disappearance, reduction or a shift in the adsorption bands depending on the type of metal ion. Lead for example showed a strong absorption band in the region of 1732cm-1 which is characteristic of C=O stretching bond structure which is found in esters and carboxylic acids. The disappearance of the peaks indicated that the H atom present in the functional groups of the raw water hyacinth powder could have been substituted with lead ion. The intensity of the adsorption bands reduced for all the metals confirming that functional groups were responsible for adsorption of the heavy metal ions on to the material.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simultaneous Densitometric and UPLC Methods for the Determination of Paracetamol and Metoclopramide HCL

Azza Abdel-Nasir Mahmoud, Noha Salem Rashed, Manal Mohamed Fouad

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 56-67
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v6i130154

Two simple, accurate and precise methods were presented for the simultaneous quantitative estimation of paracetamol and metoclopramide hydrochloride. The first is based on TLC separation of the two drugs, followed by densitometric measurement at 274 nm using a developing system composed of dichloromethane - methanol - conc. ammonia (8:2:0.05 by volume). The second method is based on UPLC separation of the cited drugs at 230 nm using C18 column and a mobile phase of 0.1% ortho-phosphoric acid (PH 3.5) – acetonitrile (70: 30, v/v). Regression analysis of Beer’s plots showed good correlations (r = 0.9996 - 0.9998) over concentration ranges of 1.5 – 15 and 0.1-0.6 μg/spot or 5-25 and 0.25 – 1.5 μg mL-l for paracetamol and metoclopramide  HCL using the two suggested methods, respectively. The proposed methods were also successfully applied to analyze both drugs in their pharmaceutical formulation; Migracid® tablets with mean recoveries ranging from 99.03 to 101.1%. The results obtained were validated as per ICH guidelines and statistically analyzed and found to be in accordance with those given by a reported method.