Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Adsorption Capacity of Copper II Sulphate on Kaolin

H. A. Aliyu̽, A. M. Danjuma, K. Abubakar, R. S. Umar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i430139

Copper II sulphate is one of those contaminants that undermine the economic, environment and deleterious health effects on people. Kaolin sample from Illela local government of Sokoto state, Nigeria was used as adsorbent for removal of Copper II sulphate and to check for the effect of concentration. The collected kaolin sample was pretreated to remove debris, grinded and dried. The adsorption methods of the parameters onto the kaolin were investigated by maintaining constant amount of adsorbent, temperature and other factors except for concentration. The results from different concentrations shows that with increase in concentration of the copper solution, the more the kaolin adsorbed. From the findings, it was established that kaolin form Illela local government of Sokoto state, Nigeria can serve as an economic, safe and effective natural adsorbent for removal of copper II sulphate from wastewater.

Open Access Original Research Article

Properties of Biodiesel Purified by Membrane Technology

Yoel Pasae, Yulius Salla, Lyse Bulo

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 21-27
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i430142

Membrane technology is the most effective technology in the process of separation and purification because the separation of components can occur to the molecular level. Therefore the application of membrane technology in the biodiesel production process can provide high-purity biodiesel quality. In this research, the process of separating and refining palm oil biodiesel does not use the washing process, but it uses membrane separation technology. The membrane used is the ceramic ultrafiltration membrane 0.02 µm. The purification process was carried out at temperature 70°C and pressure 12 Psi (0.86 bar), flow rate of 39.53 L/min, circulation time of 3 hours with a feed of 10 L. After purification, an obtained biodiesel has physical properties as follows: Purity level 97.63% mass (total ester content) and 97.02% mass (methyl ester content), kinematic viscosity at 40°C is 5.70 (cSt), density 0.86 (g/cm3), acid number 0.45 (mg KOH/g) and the saponification number 206.45 mg KOH/g. The values ​​of the physicochemical properties have met Indonesian National Standard (SNI).

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Contamination in Swampy Agricultural Soils of Kokona, Nasarawa, Nigeria

Usman Rilwan, Auta Abdullahi Abbas, Hudu Abdulrahman

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 28-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i430145

Absorption of heavy metals through swampy agricultural soils may have serious consequences on human health. Present study determined the levels of Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd) and Lead (Pb) using X- Ray Spectrometry in 10 swampy agricultural soils. The result of this study revealed that, the heavy metals with their respective concentrations (Cr (278.1), Ni (462.1), Cu (314.1), Zn (502.8), As (13.5), Cd (524.5) and Pb (295.5)) were found in the soil samples in mg/kg. It also pointed out that the concentration of the heavy metals in the all soil samples for all locations in decreasing order was Cd > Zn >Ni > Cu >Pb > Cr >As. The concentration in swampy agricultural soils from Kokona was obviously higher than the safe limit set by the regulatory bodies which may be because of the geological activities in the studied area. Hence, heavy metals accumulation in swampy agricultural soils is a big concern in Kokona where people’s daily meal largely contains rice or rice based products which are mostly cultivated in swampy agricultural soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Semi-empirical Approach on the Methanogenic Toxicity of Aromatic Compounds on the Biogas Production

Beaudrique M. Nsimba, Norbert L. Basosila, Jean-Claude K. Kayembe, Didier M. Mbuyi, Aristote P. Matondo, Gédéon N. Bongo, Koto-te-Nyiwa Ngbolua, Pius T. Mpiana

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 34-50
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i430146

In this work, a semi-empirical approach correlating the values of methanogenic toxicity of 22 aromatic compounds was used.  TheIC50 exp, along with the various molecular properties of these compounds were determined using the DFT B3LYP/6-31G (d,p) method. While a conceptual approach of the FDT, was made in order to determine those, which are responsible of this methanogenic activity of the studied aromatic compounds. The Principal Component Analysis method was used in order to describe all the connections and information contained between these various variables (IC50exp.and molecular properties) of the aromatic compounds. TThe Hierarchical Cluster Analysis helped to classify the studied aromatic compounds in various classes defining the various types of methanogenic toxicity. The findings show that the electron withdrawing and lipophilic substituents made the aromatic ring more toxic than the electron donating and hydrophilic substituents.The aromatic compounds with -NO2 and –Cl groups formed the classes of the most toxic with the bactericidal action ofstudied aromatic compounds, with values of IC50exp ranging between 4.19 ± 0.01 and 67.20 ± 1.97 mg/L. The compounds with -OH and -NH2 groups formed the class of the least toxic of studied aromatic compounds with bacteriostatic action with values of IC50exp ranging between 966.27 ± 7.04 and 3151.49 ± 5.93 mg/L. The benzene (aromatic ring unsubstituted) taken as reference, formed its own class with a value of IC50exp of 208.78 ± 2.80 mg/L. It thus marks the line of demarcation between the classes of studied aromatic compounds with the electron withdrawing and/or lipophilic substituents  (-NO2 and -Cl), more toxic with the bactericide action, and that of the aromatic compounds with electron donating and hydrophilic substituents (-OH and -NH2), less toxic with the bacteriostatic action.

Open Access Review Article

Synthetic Strategies towards Therapeutically Relevant Tailored Macrocycles

Ashu Chaudhary, Subhash ., Pinki .

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 6-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i430141

The normally used synthetic approaches toward macrocyclization join full scale lactonization, macrolactamization, transition metal catalysed cross coupling, ring-closing metathesis, and click reaction, among others. Picked continuous examples of macrocyclic synthesis of natural products and druglike macrocycles with noteworthy natural significance are highlighted in each class and outline the general engineered systems for the synthesis of macrocycles. The synthesis of macrocyclic compounds incorporating natural products with differing complexities by ring closing metathesis is depicted. Twelve to huge rings that have been orchestrated in moderate to great yields and the synthesis of larger rings as a part of bi-cyclic or poly-cyclic frameworks are likewise depicted in this review.