Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Salts and Organic Osmolytes is Due to Conservative Forces

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i130123

Background: The impression given in the literature was that the net interaction potential energy, V is the difference between Coulombic-Coulombic and total weaker interaction energies. It is proposed however, that in aqueous solution all particles with full formal charges and partial charge (dipoles) contribute to the total interaction as applicable to conservative field but not to the exclusion of hydrophobic interaction if applicable.

Objectives: The objectives are 1) To theoretically elucidate the basis of the intermolecular interaction, 2) To show that effectiveness of an osmolyte which may include inorganic ion to force macromolecular, (un)folding, the m-value, is a function of the implicit mobility (or translational velocity) of the cosolute, 3) To link the m-value to conservative forces (or potential energies, V) and 4) Quantitate the values of V.

Methods: A major theoretical investigation and experimentation using Bernfeld method.

Results and Discussion: There were higher velocities of amylolysis with salt than without it in the presence of ethanol. The magnitude of the calculated V and energy equivalent of the entropic term were higher with higher concentration of ethanol unlike was the case with graphically determined values which were generally higher in magnitude than calculated values. The values of the calculated V and intermolecular distance were respectively higher in magnitude and longer with higher concentration of the salt.

Conclusion: The attractive interaction between a macromolecule and a cationic counter ion is due to long ranged ion-ion interaction which ultimately enhances the effect of short ranged interaction. Higher salt concentration promotes long ranged interaction. The translational velocity of the solvent and cosolute has a role in the quantification of intermolecular distance. A mathematical relationship exists between m-value and - V (or 2 K.E.). The values of V can be calculated based on the derived equations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chemical Variability of Essential Oils from Zanthoxylum leprieurii Guill. et Perr (Rutaceae) According to Plant Organs

Yoro Tine, Alioune Diallo, William Diatta, Jean-Marie Desjobert, Jean Costa, Alassane Wélé, Julien Paolini

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 18-25
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i130124

Zanthoxylum leprieurii belonging to Rutaceae family, is a medicinal and aromatic plants widely used in ethnopharmacology. Like other plants of Rutaceae family such as Citrus sp., the essential oils of this species could be used in cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Thus, the essential oils of Z. leprieurii from different plant organs (fruit, leaf, stem and root) were investigated by using GC and GC-MS. The volatile composition of Z. leprieurii fruits exhibited relative high amounts of hydrocarbons monoterpenes (90.9%) such as (E)-β-ocimene (50.9%) and a-pinene (30.4%). The chemical composition of fruit oils was compared with volatile fractions of leaves, stems and roots from the same plant station. Germacrene B (9.0%), b-phellandrene (7.6%), caryophyllene oxide (7.2%) and b-caryophyllene (5.3%) were identified as the major constituents of leaves whereas the essential oil composition of the roots dominated by sesquiterpenes (83.3%) such as germacrone (23.5%), germacrene B (19.1%), g-elemene (6.0%), elemenone (4.0%) and b-elemene (2.4%) in the essential oil of the stems, b-Phellandrene (12.7%), germacrene B (5.0%), germacrene D (4.7%) and cis-9-Octadecen-1-ol (4.6%) have been reported as majority compounds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Ceftiofur and Tulathromycin in Bulk and Dosage Forms

Noha Salem Rashed, Amany Mohmed Abdelazeem, Fatma Ahmed Fouad

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 34-47
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i130126

Two simple, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of two veterinary drugs, ceftiofur and tulathromycin in pure form as well as in pharmaceutical formulations. The first one (Method A) based on the reducing action of ceftiofur on Fe (ΙΙΙ) to Fe (ΙΙ) in its complex with 1, 10- phenanthroline (ferrin complex) to give the orange-red colored ferroin complex that exhibits an absorption maximum at 511 nm. Ceftiofur exhibited good linearity in the concentration range of 0.3-3.0 μg mL−1.The second method (Method B) depended on formation of a binary complex between tulathromycin and eosin Y in in the presence of carboxy methylcellulose as surfactant. Under the optimum conditions, the binary complex showed absorption maxima at 556 nm. The method obeyed Beer’s law over concentration range of 1.0–15.0 μg mL−1.  The proposed methods were used for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulation; maxfur® powder and draxxin® injections with mean recoveries of 99.57and 99.71%, respectively. The validity of the methods was further proved by applying the standard addition technique. A proposal of the reactions pathways were described.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of Ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3β, 14α – diol (22Z) from Kenyan Ganoderma lucidum

Ebrahim Sande, Danstone Lilechi Baraza, Selline Ooko, Peter Kuloba Nyongesa

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 48-57
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i130127

Aims: To determine the chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Kenyan Ganoderma lucidum.

Study Design: Structural determination of the isolated compound was done using spectral evidences and in comparison with literature. The antibacterial properties of the compound was done using disc diffusion method.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology, between January and November, 2019.

Methodology: Sequential extraction of dried samples of Kenyan G. lucidum were done using solvents hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Chromatographic separation of hexane extract of Ganoderma lucidum was done using spectroscopic data. The compound was assayed against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Methicillin–Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes. Standard antibiotic namely; ampicillin was used as the control. Disc diffusion method was used and zones of inhibition, after respective incubation periods, were used to quantify antibacterial activity.

Results: From hexane extract of Ganoderma lucidum, Ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3β, 14α – diol (22Z) was isolated. Ethylacetate and methanol extracts produced a mixture of complex compounds. Ergosta-5,7,22-triene-3β,14α-diol (22Z) exhibited significant activity against Methicillin-Resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (p=0.022) and Streptococcus pyogenes (p = 0.05). The most sensitive microbe was Streptococcus pyogenes.

Conclusion: One major compound, Ergosta-5, 7, 22-triene-3β, 14α – diol (22Z) was isolated, characterized and antibacterial activity determined.

Open Access Review Article

Synthesis and Characterization of ZnS Nanoparticles Using Co-precipitation Method

S. Mohanapriya, M. Vennila, S. Kowsalya

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 26-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2020/v5i130125

ZnS nanoparticles were prepared from homogeneous chemical co-precipitation reaction by using zinc acetate, sodium sulfide [Na2S] and Poly Vinyl Polypyrrolidone [PVP]. The basic, morphological, and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) absorption. The structural and optical characterization of the samples observed by SEM, FTIR, EDX and UV-Vis spectrometer showed that ZnS nanoparticles were formed.