Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis, Characterization, Antibacterial and Thermal Studies of Cu(II) Complex of Thiophene-2- aldehyde Semicarbazone

Dipta Sarker, Md. Yeamin Reza, Md. Masuqul Haque, Rausan Zamir, Md. Ali Asraf

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i430116

Copper (II) complex of the ligand, thiophene-2-aldehyde semicarbazone was synthesized and characterized. Their structures were explored on the basis of CHN analysis, conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, spectral studies (FT-infrared and ESI-MS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It has been observed from spectral and analytical studies, the copper complex have the composition of [CuL(CH3COO)2(H2O)] [where L is thiophene-2-aldehyde semicarbazone]. The electrospray mass spectrum of the ligand and complex exhibited ion at mass-to charge ratio (m/z) of 169.13 and 368.86 matching the calculated values for the molecular ion of the ligand and complex, respectively. One mole of the ligand behaves as bidentate chelating agents around the Cu(II) ion. From conductivity studies, we obtained that the copper complex of the ligand, thiophene-2-aldehyde semicarbazone had no ionic properties. All data confirmed a trigonal bipyramidal geometry of the complex. Antibacterial activity of the compounds against the microbe Enterobacter aerogenes and Bacillus cereus have been screened to reflect that the complex has higher antimicrobial activity than the free ligand.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Some Heavy Metals in Soils around Major Parks in Gombe Town, Nigeria

Buhari Magaji, Wilson L. Danbature, Zaccheus Shehu, Mukhtar M. Sani, Abdu M. Sani, Abdulkadir Abubakar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i430118

The levels of heavy metals (Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn and Fe in mg/kg) in roadside soils from two main motor parks (Gombe Terminus and Tashan Dukku) in Gombe, Nigeria were assessed with respect to distance from the motor parks. The metals concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.  The results show that iron had the highest concentration in all the soils and can be represented in the following order: Fe > Zn > Pb > Ni > Mn > Cr. The heavy metals concentrations were found to be higher in the roadside soils as compared with the control samples. Thus, the metals concentrations decrease with increase in distance away from the parks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of the Oil Composition of Clarias gariepinus Collected from Four Lagoons in Lagos, South Western Nigeria

Adunola Abosede Bello, Adunola Abosede Bello, Oluwasegun Soliu Muniru

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i430119

Oil composition of Clarias gariepinus collected from various locations were studied and compared. Oils contained in the fishes were extracted using Soxhlet extraction method. The physiochemical properties of the oils were determined using official methods of analysis while the fatty acid composition was analysed using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrophotometer. The functional groups present in the oils were also detected using Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FTIR). The oil content for the fishes was in the range of 30.65%-40.57%. The oil extracted from C. gariepinus collected from Badagry lagoon had the highest peroxide and iodine values (5.12 mg KOH/g and 129 mgI2/100 g). The fatty acid composition shows that the oils contains large number of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids except for the oil extracted from C. gariepinus collected from Ikorodu lagoon that contains large number of monounsaturated fatty acids. The FTIR spectra show the presence of carboxylic acid, methylene, esters, ketone and alcohol functional group. It was deduced from this study that habitat had strong impact on the oil composition of C. gariepinus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Ascorbic Acid Content in Some Selected Fruits Samples from Makarfi Local Markets, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Sulaiman Ayodeji Apampa, Isah AbdulAzeez, Salisu Abubakar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i430121

This study was carried out to determine the ascorbic acid content of some fruits samples sold in Makarfi local market. Six fruits samples were randomly selected and used for the study. The samples were thoroughly washed and rinsed with distilled water. 500 g of each fruit sample (Cucumber, Carrot and Garden egg) were analyzed for both fresh and cooked portions. The samples were crushed and suspensions were made using doubled-distilled water. The extract was filtered to obtained 100 ml from each fruit filtrate which was then placed in a 500 ml volumetric flask and diluted to the mark with distilled water. 25 ml of each solution were treated with 150 ml distilled water and 5 ml of 0.6 molar freshly prepared KI(aq). 5 ml of 1M HCl and 1 ml of starch solution was added to the mixture which was then titrated against a freshly prepared 0.002M potassium iodate solution. The results obtained were used to determine the concentration of ascorbic acid in each sample. The major findings revealed that, fresh cucumber fruit has the highest concentration of ascorbic acid (9.6 x 10-1 mg/L) followed by garden egg ( 7.1 x 10-1 mg/L) and cooked garden egg fruits ( 5.6 x 10-1 mg/L). On the other hand, passion fruit (0.06 x 10-1 mg/L) has the least quantity of ascorbic acid content followed by cooked carrot (1.3 x 10-1 mg/L) and tamarind (2.9 x 10-1 mg/L)respectively. Some recommendations were made amongst which is that farmers should be enlightened to avoid the use of excessive inorganic fertilizers as it may be the factors that degrade the ascorbic acid content of some edible fruits. Vitamin C content of food get reduced by prolonged storage and over cooking because ascorbic acid is water soluble and it is destroyed by heat. Therefore steaming or microwaving should be encouraged. The study was concluded by emphasizing the importance of the consumption of fruits and the advantages of this to human health and general well-being.

Open Access Original Research Article

Synthesis and Evaluation of Ethanolamine-Cashew Nut Shell Liquid Products as Crude Oil Emulsion Breakers

C. O. Victor-Oji, U. J. Chukwu, O. Akaranta

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-33
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i430122

Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL), a natural phenolic liquid, was extracted from cashew nut shells using acetone and derivatized using Ethanolamine (EA) and Diethanolamine (DEA) in varying molar ratios via a one-pot process into anacardic acid-based ethanolamine esters and evaluated for use as crude oil emulsion breakers. The CNSL extract was characterized for its physico-chemical properties, FTIR spectral analysis for CNSL and the derivatives confirmed its chemical modification. Medium heavy crude and seawater sampled and characterized with ASTM standards were used in producing laboratory-simulated crude oil emulsions at varying crude oil: water mixing ratios of 90:10, 70:30 and 50:50. Performance of the anacardic acid-based CNSL extract and derivatives as demulsifiers were evaluated based on variation in dosage (10 ppm – 50 ppm), water content (10%, 30% and 50%), and solvent types (xylene and butanol, BuOH) at 60℃ within a 3-hr period via bottle testing. The performance of effective demulsifier formulations were compared with a commercial demulsifier, Phase Treat-4633, PT-4633, under similar conditions. Results obtained showed that water separation increases with demulsifier concentration and emulsion water content respectively, though water seperation varied among the demulsifiers as concentration and water content increased. PT-4633 in butanol achieved efficient water separation with an optimal seperation (100%) observed after 5 minutes at 40 ppm and 50 ppm, 50% and 60℃. In conclusion, the evaluated ethanolamine-CNSL products possess emulsion breaking potential using BuOH as solvent at shorter times. This behaviour may be due to the synergetic effect of BuOH as a solvent, thus, BuOH should be considered as solvent substitute for xylene due to low cost and toxicity levels, unlike xylene which is toxic and expensive.