Open Access Original Research Article

CFD Simulation of Heat Transfer from Elliptic Tube Bundle Buried in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed

M. A. Abd-Rabbo, R. Y. Sakr, M. A. Mohammad, M. M. Mandour

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330111

In the present work, numerical simulations are performed to study heat transfer characteristics and fluid flow around elliptic tube heat exchanger. The results for heat transfer coefficient between immersed inline and staggered bundles of horizontal smooth tubes and air-fluidized bed of pulverized coal, dp = 2 mm, are reported within the range of fluidization number, Usup/ Umf, ranges from 1 to 1.4. Heat transfer as well as multiphase flow dynamics in fluidized bed is modelled using the Eulerian-Eulerian and the Two-Fluid Model (TFM) with Kinetic Theory of Granular Flow (KTGF) to describe the granular flow characteristics of the solid phase. The average heat transfer coefficient for the present work is compared with that obtained from the well-known correlation of circular cylinder and a noticed improvement is observed. It is noticed that, the average Nusselt number increases with fluidization number. Also, it is noticed that, the average Nusselt number in case of staggered tubes bundle is higher than the case of inline tubes bundle. The inline tube bundle has lesser pressure drop than the staggered tube bundle.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Addition Chromium Feed to the Efficiency of Gouramy (Osphronemus goramy) Nursery Time

Yuli Andriani, Junianto ., Iskandar ., Inggia Putra Pamungkas

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330112

This research aims to determine the efficiency of gouramy nursery time by providing chromium feed. Chromium feed is carried out by adding lemna meals containing chromium to commercial feed with Cr concentration of each treatment at 0 ppm; 1.3 ppm; 1.5 ppm; and 1.7 ppm. Based on preliminary test Lemna sp. which was cultured in tannery wastewater for five days could accumulate Cr in the tannery wastewater in its tissue in an organic form of 2,319 mg kg-1. This research was conducted using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD) method with four treatments. Treatment A (Control commercial feed without Lemna), B (Commercial feed + Lemna 56.06 g kg-1), C (Commercial feed + Lemna 64.68 g kg-1), D (Commercial feed + Lemna 73.31 g kg-1) and each treatment was repeated four times. The addition of Cr in commercial feed can give significantly different results on increasing the absolute length of gouramy fry, while in survival it does not give a real difference. Giving Lemna sp. with Cr 2,319 mg kg-1 content as much as 73.31 g kg-1 in commercial feed or equivalent to 1.7 ppm Cr produces survival rate, absolute length increase and the best maintenance time efficiency in gouramy fry successively at 87.5 ± 5%; 1.89 ± 0.04 cm and with a maintenance time of 42 days to achieve an increase 2 cm length, 1.6 times faster than the control treatment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biophysical Study for the Interactions of Some Diazo Dyes with Human Serum Albumin

Mohammed Hadi Al–Douh, Elham Abdalrahem Bin Selim, Edrees Muhammad Tahir, Sabah Ahmed Abdo Esmail, Yaman Ahmed Naji, Hassan Hadi Abdullah

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330113

The biophysical interactions between the human serum albumin HSA and three synthesized diazo dyes 1-3 have been investigated by thermodynamic parameters and molecular docking technique. The binding constants Kb were calculated and the compounds were ranked according to their docking free energy. Different interactions were elucidated at the active site of the protein. Among these interactions is the hydrogen bonding which plays an essential role in the interaction with the protein. Both the theoretical and practical studies have agreed that diazo dye 1 has the strongest interaction with the active site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teratogenicity, Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Genotoxicity and Toxicity of Petroleum- contaminated Wastewater in Niger-Delta Nigeria

Fawole Charles, S. J. Salami, D. A. Dashak

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330114

The chronic human health effects of the 17 US Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] priority pollutants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] were investigated and characterized in petroleum contaminated wastewater discharged indiscriminately into the surface water of Okpoka creek off the upper Bonny River estuary in the Niger-Delta. Collections and sampling were conducted under the standard specifications, ethics and protocols of U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The liquid-liquid extraction of Petroleum contaminated wastewater samples were conducted in accordance with standard procedure of US EPA. Identification and quantification of 17 PAHs were performed by Gas chromatograph with Mass spectrometric detection (GC/MSD) in accordance with standard analytical method of US EPA. The result showed presence of Naphthalene [2.6000 mg/l], Acenaphthylene [8.0000 mg/l], Acenaphthene [0.0000 mg/l], Fluorene [9.0008 mg/l], Anthracene [0.0000 mg/l], Phenanthrene [0.0000 mg/l], O-Terphenyl [5.0200 mg/l], Fluoranthene [1.1000 mg/l], Pyrene [8.0000 mg/l], Benz[a]anthracene [1.0900 mg/l], Chrysene [0.0000 mg/l], Benzo[b]fluoranthene [10.0000 mg/l], Benzo[k]fluoranthene [0.0000 mg/l], Benzo[e]pyrene [0.0000 mg/l], Dibenzo [a,h] anthracene [4.0100 mg/l], Indeno[1,2.3-cd]pyrene [9.2000 mg/l] and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene [3.0000 mg/l]. The results also indicated that some of the 17 PAHs constituents were above the PAHs World Health Organization [2003] maximum permissible limits (MPL) in drinking water (0.0020 mg/l) with 64% and 35.29% below the MPL. The low molecular weights of PAHs [LPAHs] were 40.60% and high molecular weights of PAHs [HPAHs] were 59.40%. Human teratogenic PAHs [9.09%], Human mutagenic PAHs [24.24%], Human carcinogenic PAHs [24.24%], Human genotoxic PAHs [18.18%] and other toxics [24.24%]. Thus, total PAHs concentrations gave 61.2800 mg/l of the petroleum contaminated wastewater sample.

Open Access Original Research Article

Remediation of Boating and Jetty Pollutants from the Okavango Delta Surface Water Employing Valorized Tilapia ruweti Waste Material

Irene W. Maina, Morlu G. F. Stevens, Bareki S. Batlokwa

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330115

Aims: To employ valorized waste materials from Tilapia ruweti scales for removal of heavy metals from areas with major boating activities and high numbers of jetties at the Okavango delta, Botswana.

Study Design: Biowaste materials were Identified, valorized and then optimized for adsorption and removal of boating and jetty pollutants from profiled Okavango Delta surface water samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Okavango Delta, Maun and Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Palapye, Botswana between March 2017 and September 2018.

Methodology: Tilapia ruweti scales were collected from Sehithwa, Maun while water samples were collected from areas with jetties and major boating activities at Shakawe, Mboma Island and Xakanaxa. The concentration of Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb and Cd at all the sampling sites were accurately determined using micro-plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MPAES). The fish scales were pulverized and valorized by subjecting them to 12.7% vinegar. Minitab 14 software was used as a modeling tool to provide multivariate optimized parameters that affect sorption studies that included initial ion concentration, sorbent dose, contact time and solution pH. The valorized waste materials were then utilized for removal of the selected heavy metals.

Results: The optimized adsorption parameters that included contact time, solution pH, sorbent dose and initial ion concentration were ≤ 88.63 min, ≤ 8.75, ≤ 84.29 mg and ≤ 28.44 mg/L respectively. The valorized Tilapia ruweti waste displayed high removal efficiencies toward removing the selected ions from the Okavango Delta surface water samples up to 94.21% with %RSD < 2 for n = 3 (triplicate).

Conclusion: The valorized Tilapia ruweti scales were recommended as a cheap, simple and an effective method for remediation of boating pollution at the Okavango delta and other recreational areas.