Open Access Short Research Article

Determination of Physico-chemical Properties in Soil Samples of Prayagraj (Allahabad) District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Chahat Verma, Abhinav Lal, Alec D. M. David, P. Smriti Rao

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i230110

Physico-chemical properties of soils from different land use systems viz. agriculture, olericulture, horticulture etc in Prayagraj (Allahabad) Uttar Pradesh were analyzed in 2018-19. Samples were collected from 4 different sites of Allahabad district viz., ECC gaughat, Jhunsi, Karchhana & Subedarganj having distance between them of at least 4 kms. Some soils samples had higher water holding capacity & value of organic carbon. They have average value of pH and EC as compared to the cultivated soils. Potassium was found to be of low content in soil samples. Physical properties and parameters for all soils were average or medium whereas as variation in chemical properties were observed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Monitoring the Physicochemical Properties of Water Used for Irrigation in Gwagwalada Area Council of FCT Abuja, Nigeria

Chime Maureen Oby, Dauda Mary Sunday, Useh Mercy Uwem, Rosemary Okoh Esene

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i3-430106

Water is one of the most important global requirements for every activity in life including agricultural irrigation. Water if polluted, creates direct problems of alkalinity/salinity/toxicity to agricultural farms, thereby negatively affecting the quality and nutritional value of cultivated crops. This study was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical parameters of river water from eight different rivers within Gwagwalada Area Council of the FCT, using standard methods. These parameters were determined during wet and dry seasons and the results showed seasonal variations of all the parameters. Means of seasonal values of pH ranged between 6.37 - 7.95, temperature 22.40 – 27.100°C and electrical conductivity 124.55 μS/cm – 312.32 μS/cm. The mean values of Dissolve oxygen (DO) and Dissolved solid (DS) in the two seasons (wet and dry) were 3.37 mg/l – 9.39 mg/l and 67.76 mg/l - 151.23 mg/l respectively. For sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and turbidity, the mean values for wet and dry seasons ranged between 42.94 – 98.98 mg/l, 0.98 – 3.56 mg/l, 4.98 – 11.94 and 4.90 – 47.32 NTU respectively. Other parameters are potassium 3.12-6.56 mg/l, sodium 13.78 -24.33 mg/l, magnesium 3.76 – 8.90 mg/l and calcium 9.78 – 19.87 mg/l. These chemical parameters also showed significant seasonal variation. The results of the analyses indicated that some of the parameters fall within the recommended limits and thus largely suitable for irrigation and domestic purposes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ultrasound Assisted Sonochemical Decomposition of Methyl Orange in the Presence of H2O2 and CCl4

J. Ara, M. Ashifuzzaman, M. J. Hossain, S. M. A. Razzak, S. Monira, J. Alauddin, M. A. A. Mashud, M. H. Uddin

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i230107

Methyl orange (MO) is an orange azoic dye; which has transition range from 3.1 to 4.4. Sonochemical decomposition of methyl orange in the presence of H2O2 and CCl4 has given effective result to reclaim water from the effluents released by the industries. The aim of this research was to investigate the effective condition for the decomposition of MO in the presence or absence of additives. For this, 50 mg/L solution of MO was sonicated in the presence and absence of different additives. It was clearly confirmed that the rates of sonochemical decomposition of MO increased with increasing the concentration in both cases of H2O2 and CCl4. The combination of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) namely hydrogen per-oxide and carbon tetra-chloride with sonolysis harvests the decomposition of wide spectrum of organic contaminants. The combination of sonolysis with H2O2 and CCl4 enhances the production of non-selective radicals to improve the decomposition process. The AOPs is technically feasible and also economic. Based on the results, it was suggested that the rate of MO decomposition can be effectively enhanced by the sonolysis of CCl4 and also for H2O2. It was possible to include order- MO+200 µL H2O2 > MO+100 µL H2O2 > MO+20 µL H2O2 > MO; MO+200 µL CCl4 > MO+100 µL CCl4 > MO+20 µL CCl4 > MO.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Senescence on the Nutritional Profiles of Some Fruits Consume in Makurdi, Nigeria

Peter Agorye Adie, Peter Onyilo Ediga, Raymond Ahule Wuana

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i230108

Chemical and nutritional changes with senescence in some fruits commonly consumed in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, were investigated using standard analytical methods. Four fruits: mango, pawpaw, orange and pineapple at three different stages of growth; pre-ripe, ripe, and post-ripe were screened for proximate composition, mineral elements, pH, titrable acidity, and vitamins A and C. Results indicated increase in moisture content as the fruit deteriorated in the climacteric fruits (mango and pawpaw), while in the non-climateric fruits (orange and pineapple) the parameter depreciated from ripe to over-ripe. Other proximate parameters showed a consistent rise at ripening and declining thereafter as the fruit deteriorated. In all cases, pH of the fruits showed steady rise with senescence, and this was inversely related to the titrable acidity. Beta-carotene (vitamin A) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) showed similar trend of peaking at the ripening stages and declining as the fruits aged. Nitrogen recorded the highest concentration (45.28±0.04 mg/L) among the macronutrient elements at the ripe stage of pawpaw, while phosphorus recorded the least (1.39±0.01 mg/L) for over-ripe pineapple. The instrument failed to detect Ni in all samples analyzed in the micronutrient mineral elements category, while Ca recorded the highest (5.25±0.07 mg/L). Macronutrients showed consistency in appreciating at ripening and depreciating as the fruits aged. Only Zn showed presence in all samples among the micronutrients analyzed. Results showed that in most of the parameters investigated, nutritional and chemical contents of the fruits are at their optimum at the ripen stage of the fruits, and declined as the fruits deteriorates with age.

Open Access Review Article

A Review on Common Methods for Characterizing Graphene Oxide (GO)

Md. Shafiul Islam

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i230109

Graphene oxide, two-dimensional material with the thickness of 1.1±0.2 nm, has gained attention to a greater extent in the field of science for its radically distinctive properties: physical, chemical, optical as well as electrical etc. Graphene oxide (monolayer sheet) has been synthesized by oxidizing graphite (millions of layer) to graphite oxide (multilayers) which has been converted into graphene oxide via exfoliation followed by sonication and centrifugation - a method mentioned as Modified Hummer Method. I focus on the chemical structure of graphene oxide. However, I discuss the different analytical methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray Diffraction pattern for characterizing the graphene oxide. Furthermore, this review covers the analytical evaluation of graphene oxide and discuss the past, present and future of graphene oxide in the scientific world.