Open Access Minireview Article

Towards Greener Preservation of Edible Oils: A Mini-review

Masimba Tapera

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i1-230105

Edible oils like sunflower oil, rapeseed oil, soybean oil, cotton seed oil and olive oil are necessary components in human diet and are extensively utilized in the food trade. Safe storage of edible oils has perpetually been a haul within the food industry since the oils can easily endure oxidative deterioration. Studies specializing on polyphenols as a supply of natural antioxidants of plant origin to delay oxidative deterioration of food products have increased worldwide. Both natural and synthetic antioxidants are widely used in protecting oils against oxidative deterioration. Natural antioxidants are greener preservatives because they are known to be safer than their synthetic counterparts. Currently there is an increased interest in sources of natural antioxidants to enrich oils towards shelf life enhancement. This review highlights some research works in which natural antioxidants from plant materials have been used to preserve edible oils. Most of the natural compounds extracted from medicinal plants were found to be able to preserve edible oils against oxidative deterioration. The potential of most of the natural antioxidants from plant materials to preserve edible oils was found to be comparable to that of synthetic antioxidants in all the reviewed researches. Use of natural antioxidants from plant materials for preservation of edible oils is a promising approach that can be adopted by edible oil manufacturers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Heavy Metals in Selected Tissues and Organs of Cattle from Central Abattoir in Ado-Ekiti, Akure and Owena

Daniel Uwaremhevho Momodu, Adedayo Olamide Oyebanji

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i1-230102

This study was to determine the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) in the organs (liver, kidney and heart) and tissues (intestine and blood) of slaughtered cattle using spectroscopy method based on comparison with standards. The results obtained for these heavy metals have values that ranged from 0.00±0.00 to 7.33±5.01mg/kg for Pb, 0.00±0.00 to 0.50±0.50 mg/kg for Cd and 0.00±0.00 to 51.67±10.54 mg/kg for Zn. Generally, Zn was found to be present at the higher significant levels in the liver, heart, kidney and intestine. It was also found that there was no detection for Zn in the blood. Pb was found relatively high than the standard permissible limit by FAO/WHO [1] in the tissues. Cd was found to be present at the lowest concentration level. Hence, the concentrations of all the heavy metals were within the tolerance limits with the exception of Pb.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation on Effect of Stress on Dissolution Stability of Drug Product by Applying Thermal and NonThermal Methods of Analysis

Krishna R. Gupta, Rahul P. Chaudhari, Anita R. Pounikar, Anvesha V. Ganorkar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i1-230103

Aim: The aim of the research work has to development and validation of dissolution test method for Tapentadol using HPLC method, investigate the effects of stress on dissolution stability by thermal and non-thermal methods. The present research work mainly focused on the evaluation and compares the influence of accelerated-aging conditions on the drug content and in vitro dissolution stability.

Place and duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, New Kamptee, Nagpur (MS).

Methodology and Results: Saturated solubility study of tapentadol were carried out using different dissolution media and different conditions such as type of dissolution medium, volume of dissolution medium and rotation speed of paddle were evaluated. Basis of it, dissolution testing were carried out on a suitably calibrated USP Apparatus II (TDT-06L) at 50 ± 1 rpm, under sink conditions in 900 mL of deaerated distilled water at 37±0.5ºC for each test and selected most optimized dissolution parameter  which given maximum % release of drug. The drug release was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Also proposed method were validated as per ICH guidelines with respect to system suitability, linearity, precision, accuracy, range,  robustness, ruggedness and solution stability parameters were evaluated  and the obtained results were within the acceptable range. The stress on dissolution stability of standard powdered drug, tablet formulation and packed strip formulation were investigated by using thermal and non thermal methods. The results obtained in all stress conditions such as thermal, humidity, UV light and visible light were evaluated for drug content and drug release. The results were statistically evaluated by applying two-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Bonferroni test and their results represented as a graphical plot.

Conclusion: In our investigation of stress dissolution of drug it was found that Tapentadol HCl std. drug was susceptible to degradation. The tablet and packaged formulation were susceptible to photolytic degradation indicated by difference in drug content while the release was more affected under UV exposed to tablet and strip packaged formulation as compared to other stress conditions.

Open Access Review Article

Solubility Enhancement and Pharmacokinetic Assessment of Chemically Modified Lamotrigine in Rat Blood Plasma by HPLC

Krishna R. Gupta, Ashok R. Gautam, Anvesha V. Ganorkar, Milind J. Umekar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i1-230101


  1. Synthesis/preparation of Lamotrigine (LMN) complexes with β-CD, Caffeine, Nicotinamide, EDTA and
  2. Development of a new reverse phase liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the investigation of Lamotrigine in rat plasma after oral administration and pharmacokinetic assessment of Lamotrigine.

Study Design: The present work describes the formation of LMN drug complexes with β-Cyclodextrin, Caffeine, Nicotinamide and Disodium EDTA. Physical mixture, kneading and solvent evaporation methods were used to prepare LMN complexes (In ratios 1:1, 1:2, 2:1). Further characterization was performed by UV, FTIR, PXRD, and DSC. A reverse phase HPLC method was developed for the investigation of LMN in rat plasma using internal standardization method after oral administration of LMN and its complexes.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Smt. Kishoritai Bhoyar College of Pharmacy, RTMN University, Nagpur, between July 2018 and June 2019.

Methodology: LMN complexes with β-CD, Caffeine, Nicotinamide, EDTA was prepared in three ratios i.e. 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1 and characterized by UV, FTIR, PXRD, and DSC. In-vitro Solubility study was performed by saturation solubility study, further % practical yield, drug content, melting point was determined. In-vitro dissolution study of prepared complexes was performed in dissolution apparatus using the paddle method, according to USP Type II. Dissolution studies were carried out using 900 mL 0.1M HCl at 37± 0.5°C at 50 revmin−1 (US FDA guidelines).The interaction of LMN with these hydrophilic complexing agents was characterized by UV, FTIR, PXRD and DSC.

A reverse phase HPLC bioanalytical method was developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the quantitative determination of LMN in rat plasma using internal standardization method (HTZ) after oral administration of LMN and its complexes. The method was successfully applied for the pharmacokinetic study in rat. The pharmacokinetic parameter like AUCt, AUCi, MRTi, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, were calculated using pharmacokinetic software PK solver 2. The efficient separation was carried out for High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method on Eclipse XDB-C18 (150×4.6×5 µ) column using a mobile phase consisting of filtered and degassed mixture of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and Methanol in the ratio 65:35 v/v at a flow rate of 0.8 mL/min and UV detection at 307 nm.

Results: The LMN complexes were successfully prepared and characterized by UV, FTIR, PXRD, and DSC from which solvent evaporation method was found to be best as per result of in-vitro dissolution study. In-vitro dissolution study reveals that LMN-Caffeine (C1) and LMN-NTM (N1) complexes showed 100.14 and 100.01% drug release at 15 min and 20 min respectively as compared to pure drug (LMN) which shows only 50.56% drug release at 75 min.

LMN concentration in blood plasma reached (Cmax) was found to be 19.4732 µg/mL at Tmax of 5h, Whereas Cmax of LMN complexes were found to be 48.4876 (B1), 72.2160 (C1), 62.2739 (N1) and 49.3170 (E1) µg/mL at Tmax of 5h out of which complex C1 and N1 in the present study resulted in a sharp increase in Cmax. All complexes showed 4 to 5 time enhancement of Cmax as compared to LMN.. The results demonstrated that complexes of Lamotrigine were successful strategy to improve the solubility and dissolution behavior of Lamotrigine. The complex B1 shows maximum t1/2 and MRTi of 36.224 h and 52.441 h as compared to C1, N1 and E1 having t1/2 of 14.1575, 16.258 and 21.702 h and MRTi  of 19.997, 22.994 and 30.883 h respectively. Hence B1 required lesser dosing frequency as compared to other complexes.

Conclusion: The Lamotrigine complexes were prepared and confirmation of prepared complexes was done by physical characterization (FTIR. DSC, PXRD and UV) and solubility determination by saturation solubility study. The bioanalytical method was developed for estimation of plasma drug concentration of LMN. The method was validated according to ICH guidelines to estimate the mean plasma concentration of LMN after oral administration using internal standardization method (HTZ). Method was reproducible and high recovery of LMN from its complexes was achieved. The method was found to be highly satisfactory sensitive, accurate, linear and specific.

Open Access Review Article

Salts in Organic Synthesis: An Overview and Their Diversified Use

Dirgha Raj Joshi, Nisha Adhikari

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i1-230104

The chemistry of salt is of great importance due to its immense potential from the daily life use to the synthetic chemistry like as workup material, as reagents, as phase transfer catalyst, as acid, as base, as catalyst, as agents for asymmetric synthesis, for some specific reaction transformation, to increase yield, decrease reaction time, ecofriendly synthesis, handling easiness and many more. This review summarizes the overall basic background of salts like how it is formed, nature of salt, generalized application of salts in daily life to synthetic chemistry, its application on other diverse fields, and list of individual categories of major commercially available salts with some structure. Besides having a lot of information on the internet about salts, this review tries to focus on a generalized overview that could be helpful for all to understand salt chemistry.