Open Access Short Research Article

Varietal Differences in the Oil Composition of the Seed of Two Indigenous Chrysophyllum albidium Species

Bello, Adunola Abosede, Muniru, Oluwasegun Soliu, Igwe, Chima Cartney

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i430099

Aim: To investigate the varietal difference in the composition of the oil of two Chryosophyllum albidium species.

Study Design: Laboratory experimental design was used.

Place and Duration of Study: Chryosophyllum acreanum and Chrysophyllum africana seed species of Chrysophyllum albidium were collected from Oja Oba market, Ibadan, Oyo State. The study was carried out between February 2019 - August 2019 at the Oilseed Laboratory of Federal Institute of Industrial Research, Oshodi, Lagos State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Oil in both seeds was extracted using Soxhlet extraction method. The physical and chemical properties of the oils were determined using official methods of analysis while the fatty acid composition of the seed oils was analysed using Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectrophotometer.

Results: The oil yield for both seeds was low, 3.52% for C. acreanum and 3.75% for C. africana. The values for the physical properties (Specific gravity, refractive index and unsaponifiable matter) of C. acreanum seed oil were higher than for C. africana seed oil. The chemical properties shows that the acid and peroxide values are 2.79mgKOH/g; 2.67mgKOH/g, 1.78mEq/kg; 1.63mEq/kg for C. acreanum and C. africana seed oil respectively while the iodine values for both seed oils are below 100mgI2/100g. The fatty acid composition shows that both seed oil contains myristic acid as their major fatty acid.

Conclusion: The evaluated characteristics of the seed oils showed that there is no significant differences in the oil composition of C. albidium seed varieties as the oil composition are closely related except for the slight difference in their fatty acid profile.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Characterization of Oil from Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Seed

J. A. Olowokere, A. I. Onen, M. C. Odineze, I. D. B’aga, E. G. Kefas

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i430095

This work focuses on the extraction of oil from date palm seed. Using n-hexane in Soxlet extraction apparatus, standard procedures were followed to determine the oil feed stock yield. Proximate compositions and physicochemical characteristics were carried out. Also, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the functional groups and the fatty acid composition of the oil respectively. The result shows that the appearance of date palm seed oil is reddish brown in colour. Result from the FTIR analysis also shows that 17 peaks were noticed from date palm seed oil, indicating the presence of various functional groups such as OH, C-H, C=C, C=O, C  The dominating types and number of functional groups are found on the single bond stretch and on the fingerprint region skeletal vibration. Similarly, the GC-MS result also reveals that there are 5 dominating fatty acid compounds present in date palm seed oil in relation to their abundant relative weight composition. In date seed oil, oleic acid which comprise of omega-9 fatty acid is found to be the only monounsaturated fatty acid with the highest weight composition of 49.4%. The inference that can be drawn from the results in this work in relation to application suggest that, date palm seed oil will be suitable for soap production and cleansing agents. Also, omega-9 fatty acid has some health benefits that can strengthen the brain as well as the heart. Furthermore, research on the life shelf and storage of this oil should be looked into, as it relates to the peroxidation of oil.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validated Stability – Indicating Methods for Determination of Sofosbuvir by UPLC and HPTLC in Pure Form and Tablet Dosage Forms

Sawsan A. Abdel-Razeq, Zeinab Adel Nasr, Noha S. Said

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i430097

Aims: Two simple and sensitive stability- indicating methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of sofosbuvir in presence of its degradation products.

Study Design: Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) are developed for determination of sofosbuvir in presence of its degradation products, laboratory-prepared mixtures and in tablet dosage forms.

Place and Duration of Study: Analytical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Girls), Al-Azhar University, between August 2018 and March 2019.

Methodology: Two simple and sensitive stability- indicating methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of Sofosbuvir in presence of its degradation products. The first method was an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) method, in which efficient separation was carried out on phenomenex kinetex 2.6 μm C18 100 A column using a mobile phase consisting of filtered and degassed mixture of 0.1% ortho-phosphoric acid in water and methanol with the ratio of (40:60% v/v) adjusted to pH 3.5, at a flow rate of 1 mL min-1 and UV detection at 260 nm at ambient temperature. The second method is a high performance- thin layer chromatographic one (HPTLC) in which chromatographic separation was performed on silica gel 60 F254 plates, with methanol – chloroform – ammonia (2.5: 6: 1.5 % v/v/v) as a developing system followed by densitometric determination at 261 nm. Sofosbuvir was subjected to stress conditions including alkaline, acidic and oxidative degradation.

Results: Beer’s law was obeyed over the range of 1-20 μg mL–1 for UPLC and 2-12 μg / spot for HPTC with good accuracy and precision using the two procedures, respectively. Results obtained was statistically analysed and found to be in accordance with those given by the reported method.

Conclusion: The proposed methods were successfully applied for the determination of sofosbuvir in bulk powder, laboratory prepared mixtures and pharmaceutical dosage form with good accuracy and precision. The methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The results obtained were compared with those of the reported method and were found to be in good agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ultraviolet-B Radiation on the Photosynthetic Pigments and Protein Content of Strawberry

Justin Masih

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i430098

The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiations were studied on strawberry. The transplanted plants were irradiated with UV-B (280-320 nm) for 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes on 20th, 40th, and 60th days after transferring. The enhanced UV-B radiation caused a negative effect on photosynthetic pigments and protein content of strawberry. Distinct decreased as a result of UV-B irradiation in contents of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, carotenoids and protein content was observed in strawberry. The impact of increase of duration of UV-B irradiation was also observed and found to be directly proportional.

Open Access Original Research Article

Phytochemical Characterization of Naturalized Sudanese Jatropha curcas Seed Kernels

Nagwa Kamal-Eldin M. Salih, Elhadi M. Yahia

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i430100

The objective of this study was to characterize the naturalized Sudanese jatropha (Jatropha curcas L) seed kernel for its proximate composition, minerals, phenolics and fatty acids properties. The results showed 52% crude fat and 24% crude protein in Jatropha seed kernel. Also fatty acid classified as oleic acid (45%) and linoleic acid (35%) group was found in Jatropha kernel. Jatropha kernel had total soluble phenolics of about 625 mg GAE/100 g DW and was characterized by the presence of vanillic acid (112 mg/100 g DW), cinnamic acid (64 mg/100 g DW) and gallic acid (44 mg/100 g DW). These characterizations might expand the socio-economic potential and value of Sudanese Jatropha curcas L. as a medicinal plant in addition to its oil production. The edibility of seeds depends on the quality and quantity of anti-nutritional factors and the possibility of detoxification which need further investigation.