Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Continuous Deep-fat Frying on the Physicochemical Properties of Assorted Brands of Edible Cooking Oils Sold in Greater Metropolitan Kampala

Timothy Omara, Erisa Kigenyi, Fortunate Laker, Monica Adokorach, George Otim, Raymond Kalukusu, Bashir Musau, Sarah Kagoya, Brenda Victoria Nakabuye

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230086

Aims: To investigate the effects of continuous deep fat frying of white (Irish) potatoes on the physical and chemical attributes of ten brands of edible cooking oils: Fortune Butto, Roki, Tamu, Best Fry, Mukwano, Golden Fry (hard oils); Sunseed, Sunny, Sunvita and Sunlite (soft oils) sold in Kampala, Uganda.

Place and Duration of the Study: Oil samples of approximate manufacturing dates were obtained from Mega Standard supermarket in Greater Metropolitan Kampala, Uganda. Oil samples were also obtained from local Irish potato fryers in Makindye division of Kampala during ten deep frying cycles. Irish potatoes was procured from Nakasero market, Kampala. Physicochemical analyses were performed at the Quality Control Laboratory of Mukwano Industries Limited, Kampala Industrial area, Kampala. The research was conducted between May 2018 to December 2018.

Methodology: 400g of Irish potato slices (1cm × 1cm × 3cm) were submersed in 1500mL of oil maintained at 140°C for 6 minutes in an Electric Deep Fryer with a frying time of 10 minutes.The color value (CV) and the acidification of the oils as free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (POV), paraanisidine value (AnV), iodine adsorption value (IV) and total oxidation (TOTOX) value before and between ten successive frying cycles were determined using ISO and AOCS official methods.The maximum number of reuses of an oil was estimated from the frying round before its POV or AnV surpassed the maximum permissible statutory or Codex Alimentarius limit for edible oils.

Results: For fresh oils, the statistical physicochemical parameter ranges were: CV (0.4R 3.4Y-7.7R 70Y), FFA (0.0430±0.30-0.1508±0.30), POV (0.5951±0.03-6.6134±0.23 meqO2/Kg),                AnV (0.90±0.01-4.30±0.19) and IV (57.62±0.17-128.35±0.02gI2/100g). By the 10th fry, the ranges were CV (3.0R 23Y-20.4R 70Y), FFA (0.2286±0.01-0.4817±0.01), POV (11.1138±0.01-15.7525±0.01meqO2/Kg), AnV (10.31±0.03-22.16±0.01) and IV (53.66±0.01-126.03±0.02gI2/100g). Considering oxidizability as TOTOX values, frying stability of the selected brands of cooking oils during the frying cycles followed the order: Roki > Fortune Butto > Sunvita > Sunny > Sunlite > Mukwano > Tamu > Best Fry >  Golden Fry > Sunseed.

Conclusion: Reuse of the oils for continuous frying of Irish potatoes on the same day can be done only up to 7 times on average for hard oils and 6 times for soft oils with the oils still regarded as safe for human consumption. Hard oils should be preferred to soft oils for deep frying of Irish potato chips.Further research should elucidate the variation of physicochemical properties of other oil brands on the Ugandan market such as Nile, Fortune, Kimbo, Star Fry, Cow boy and Ufuta and should use other food samples such as fish, cassava, chicken, sweet plantain, dough, meat and edible grasshoppers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Phytochemical Screening and Thin Layer Chromatography Analysis of Stem Bark Extracts of African Mistletoe Parasitic on Vitellaria paradoxa, Piliostigma thonningii and Combretum fragrans

T. Agber Cyprian, Shaakaa Sewuese, Linus U. Akacha

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230087

Aim: Mistletoes are highly utilized in traditional medicine to treat different kinds of diseases such as heart diseases, diabetes and malaria, among others. The chemistry of African mistletoe is not sufficiently documented. This paper is therefore, aimed at determining the phytochemicals present in the crude extracts of mistletoe parasitic on plants that are commonly seen as hosts.

Study Design: This study was designed to compare the phytochemical profiles of mistletoe stem barks obtained from different plant hosts.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria, between August and September, 2018.  

Methodology: Powdered stem bark of mistletoe was extracted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out on the extracts. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out on silica gel precoated plates in 9:1 (hexane/ethyl acetate), 1:1 (hexane/ethyl acetate), and 7:3 (ethyl acetate/methanol) mobile phases for hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts respectively.

Results: The study revealed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins/phenols, cardiac glycosides, steroids and triterpenoids. It was evident from TLC analysis that mistletoes from various plant hosts contain similar chemical profile.

Conclusion: We therefore debunk the claim by some herbalists that medicinal values of mistletoes vary due to host plant. This is the first time a study of this kind is reported on mistletoe parasitic on Vitellaria paradoxa Pilostigma thonningii, Combretum fragrans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Alkaline Leaching of Metals from Cathodic Materials of Spent Lithium-Ion Batteries

Nango Gaye, Rokhaya Sylla Gueye, Jérôme Ledauphin, Mamadou Balde, Matar Seck, Alassane Wele, Mahy Diaw

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230088

The aim of this study was to recover metals from the positive electrode material for recycling in lithium-ion batteries. It was focused on research to optimize the hydrometallurgical pretreatment process of cathode materials for Li-ion batteries by varying parameters such as NaOH concentration, the ratio of solvent volume to mass of the test sample (liquid-solid ratio (L/S)) and reaction time. Thus, from used batteries collected in a local market (Colobane, Senegal), cathodic materials dried in an oven at 50°C for 24 hours, submitted to alkaline leaching with NaOH 2, 3 or 4N, followed by filtration, all at room temperature. The filtrates obtained were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained were showed that Al collectors could be better extracted with 4N NaOH for 5 hours at a ratio liquid/solid (L/S) = 10/1, with small quantities of the metals Co, Mn, Ni and Li found in the filtrates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adsorption Performance of Packed Bed Column for the Removal of Lead (II) Using Velvet Tamarind (Dialium indum) Shells

Jibrin Noah Akoji

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230089

The removal of Pb ions by activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind (Dialium indum) shells was studied to investigate its uptake potentials using column sorption at different operating conditions (flow rates, initial concentrations and bed height). The prepared adsorbent was characterized by determining the physicochemical properties, proximate analysis, carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulpur analysis, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, Potentiometric titration. Different dynamic models were used to describe the sorption processes. The FTIR analysis results suggested the presence of functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and amine which could bind the metals and remove them from the solution. The values of moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content as obtained from % proximate analysis are 3.43, 27.07, 65.05, 4.45 for activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells. Ultimate analysis revealed that activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells contained 75% carbon. The surface area and Iodine number of activated carbon from velvet tamarind shell are 570 m2g-1 and 614.7 mgg-1 respectively. The column experimental data revealed that an increase in bed height and initial metal concentration or a decrease of flow rate enhances the longevity of column performance by increasing both breakthrough time and exhaustion time thereby delaying bed saturation. Low ash content and high surface areas are indication of good mechanical strength and microporosity of the activated carbons prepared from this precursor.  The activated carbons are inexpensive and appeared to be effective and can be explore for future commercial application for environmental sustainability.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of the Phytochemical Activities of Some Nigerian Indigenous Kola Nuts Kola acuminate (Igbo Kola Nut), Kola vera (Hausa Kola Nut), and Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola)

M. C. Egbujor, S. E. Ike, E. O. Anieze, U. L. Kanayochukwu, N. E. Nwankwo, I. C. Chidebelu, C. G. Okenwa-Ani

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i230090

Aims: Nigerian indigenous kola nuts (Garcinia kola, Kola acuminate, Kola vera) were evaluated for potential phytochemical properties.

Study Design: Phytochemical analysis.

Place and duration of Study: Renaissance University, Ugbawka, Enugu State, Nigeria, July 2016.

Methodology: The nuts were dried, ground and extracted by cold maceration with 99.5% methanol for 72 hours after which the methanol was allowed to evaporate.

Results: The phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of saponin glycosides, glycoside, volatile oil, steroid and alkaloid in Kola vera; saponin, saponin glycoside, glycoside, tannins, pseudo tannins, volatile oil, steroid and alkaloid in Kola acuminate while flavonoid, alkaloid and steroid were found in Garcinia kola.

Conclusion: The phytochemical activities results showed that kola acuminate and Garcinia kola extracts exhibited more phytochemical than kola vera.