Open Access Original Research Article

A Green and Scalable Synthesis of 1-Amino Anthraquinone

Bin Lu, Yi-Yu Yan, Yong-Fu Qiu, Tian-Li Zhang, Shi Qi, Jian-Hua Tian, Wan-Yue Luo, Xiao Hu, Jin Wang

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i130081

1-amino anthraquinone (2) is the most important intermediate in the synthesis of acid dyes. This paper presents a new method for the preparation of title compound (2) in a highly chemo- and regioselective reduction of 1-nitro anthraquinone (1) by NaHS in water under mild conditions. This protocol is clean, operationally simple, easy work-up and could be applied in the industrial production.

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Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Common Pesticides Used in Storage of Agricultural Produce within Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria

Barizomdu T. Pii, R. A. Wuana, S. P. Malu, S. C. Nwafor

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i130082

The objective of the study was to survey the common pesticides used in postharvest storage of agricultural produce within Makurdi, Nigeria and to test the knowledge of the farmers and marketers on the health effects of these chemicals. The study provides information on the type of pesticides used by farmers, marketers and consumers of stored agricultural food products such as cowpea, yam chips, cassava chips, sesame seeds, maize and soybeans being major farm produces found within Makurdi and Benue State in general. Selection of 100 respondents were done using simple random sampling techniques across five major markets (Modern, Wurukum, North bank, Wadata and High level markets) through structured interview schedule. Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were analyzed using frequency and percentages. Percentages were used to determine the common storage pesticides used within Makurdi, storage time, the frequency of customer purchase and perceived health impact of the storage pesticides. Data obtained were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results revealed that 51% of the respondents were males with 41% between the ages of 30-39. Married respondents accounted for 52% and 48% having household sizes of 1-5, only 20% had no form of formal education and 75% were marketers. In a multiple response schedule, aluminium phosphate tablets ranked 80% for storage pesticide while dichlovos was 60%, DDT 35%. Others such as endosulfan, gamalin, carbofuran, carbendazim and permethrin were between 5-15%. Furthermore the study revealed the use of many restricted and obsolete pesticides still in use within this state and in outrageous quantities which could pose health challenge to consumers of these food products.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validated Stability Indicating HPTLC, UHPLC and UV-Spectrophotometric Techniques for the Determination of Bepotastine Besilate in Presence of Its Oxidative Degradate

Marwa Mohammed Soliman, Manal Kamal Darwish, Sawsan Abdel-Moneem Abdel-Razeq

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i130083

The study is aimed at developing methods which have a complete validation as stipulated in the ICH guidelines and to be applied for the determination of Bepotastine besilate (BB) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations in the presence of its oxidative degradation product. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), Ultra high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) and different spectrophotometric methods (first derivative, first derivative of ratio spectra and ratio difference are developed for simultaneous determination of bepotastine besilate in laboratory-prepared mixtures of bepotastine besilate with its oxidative degradate and in pharmaceutical formulations were used in the study design. Firstly, HPTLC was performed and separation occurred on silica gel 60 F254 plates, with butanol: ammonia (8:2, v/v) as a developing system. UHPLC in which separation occurred on a Kinetex C 18 column using methanol- 0.1% O-phosphoric acid - acetonitrile (70:20:10, by volume) as mobile phase, followed. And lastly was UV/Vis spectrophotometry which included first derivative determination of the drug at 252.6 nm, first derivative of ratio of peak amplitudes at 233.4, 250 and 275.6 nm and the ratio difference with the amplitude difference between (240 nm and 260 nm). Result showed that HPTLC method was applicable over the concentration range of 0.5-5 μg / band, while UHPLC method was linear over the concentration 2- 12 μg/mL and spectrophotometric methods were linear over the concentration range 20-120 μg/mL for bepotastine besilate. The proposed three techniques are quite accurate and precise. They can be used for routine analysis of bepotastine besilate in pharmaceutical formulation and stability indicating methods.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Metal on the Properties of the Azopyridine Complexes of Iron, Ruthenium and Osmium

Ouattara Wawohinlin Patrice, Bamba Kafoumba, N’guessan Nobel Kouakou, Koné Mamadou Guy Richard, Kodjo Charles Guillaume, Nahosse Ziao

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i130084

The theoretical study of α-, β-, γ-, δ-, ε- MCl2(Azpy)2 isomers with (M = Fe, Os and Ru) complexes is carried out using Density Functional Theory (DFT) at the B3LYP / LANL2DZ level. This study is focused not only on the effect of metals over geometric, electronic and reactivity parameters, but also on their anti-cancer effect. Its results that the geometric parameters undergo small modifications. These modifications evolve from iron to osmium through ruthenium complexes. Thus, the lengths of the bonds M-X (with X = Cl, N2, Npy) follow the following order Fe-X <Ru-X <Os-X. However, regarding their angular variation that undergoes deformation through the octahedron shape, it could be related to Jahn Teller effect. Also, the substitution of Ru by Os would increase the reactivity of these complexes. Among the isomers studied, the ε-Fe, δ-Ru and δ-Os complexes are likely to bind easily to the DNA. The values of the dipole moments are arranged in the following order: μ (ε-M)> μ (β-M)> μ (α-M)> μ (γ-M)> μ (δ-M) within these azopyridine complexes. Finally, we notice that the substitution of Ru by Os improves the cytotoxicity and the fluorescence of these complexes. The δ-Os isomer has the best cytotoxic and photosensitive characteristics of these azopyridine complexes and would be the ideal isomer for the diagnosis and treatment of cancers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Sorghum bicolor L. (Moench) and the Effectiveness of Some Organic Amendments in Remediation of Petroleum Oil-Vitiated Soils of an Automobile Repair Workshop in Urbanite Kampala

Timothy Omara, Eddie Adupa, Fortunate Laker, Raymond Kalukusu, Tom Owori

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2019/v3i130085

Aims: To determine the potential of sweet sorghum (Epuripur 1995) and the effect of organic biostimulators: NPK fertilizer, cow dung and sewage sludge in remediation of petroleum oil-adulterated soils from a garage in Kampala Metropolis, Uganda.

Place and Duration of Study: The contaminated soils were obtained from New Katanga Boys automobile repair workshop in Wandegeya, Kampala, Uganda. Experiments were conducted between September 2018 to November 2018 at Department of Food Processing Technology, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

Methodology: 50 kg of petroleum oil-contaminated soils were collected from the garage and divided into 5 kg portions; four portions were potted with four sorghum grains with three subjected to 5% w/w amendment using NPK fertilizer, cow dung and sewage sludge under normal growth conditions for 72 days. Representative soil samples were collected from spots at 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm from the potted soils and subjected to Soxhlet extraction. Growth parameters (leaf surface area, root mass and mass of sorghum heads) of the potted plants were measured.

Results: The sorghum plants grew normally and survived in the petroleum-contaminated soils. Sorghum potted in contaminated soil without any amendment did not flower. Amendment of the vitiated soils with NPK fertilizer, cow dung and sewage sludge biostimulated the phytoremediation capacity of sorghum by 9.1%, 12.5% and 6.3% respectively.

Conclusion: Addition of cow dung to spent-oil contaminated soils could make such soils fully re-established for agricultural activities. Further research should assess the chemical properties of the investigated vitiated soils and the effectiveness of other biostimulants such as vermicompost in biostimulating phytoremediation by Sorghum bicolor. The potential of other cereals such as corn, barley, rye and millet in phytoremediation of petroleum-adulterated soils should be investigated.