Open Access Short communication

Degradative Effect of I.R Radiations on the Constituents of Bitumen

Oladokun Benjamen Niran, Olabemiwo Mathew, Ajala Christianah Oluwamayowa

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430074

Sample of natural bitumen were taken from bitumen well in Agbabu town in Odigbo Local Government of Ondo State. These samples were separately irradiated with infrared radiations for a period of seven hours. Part of the sample was withdrawn at interval of One, Three and Seven hours. The withdrawn sample was later separated into maltene and asphaltene fractions. The maltene fraction was further separated into saturated, aromatic and polar fraction. The saturated and aromatic fractions were subjected to gas chromatography analysis. The Saturated and aromatic profiles of the bitumen were found to vary with the period of irradiation. The Chemical composition of both the saturated and aromatic compounds in the bitumen decreased with the period of irradiation. Thus, decrease in the chemical composition of bitumen as a result of irradiation cause aging of bitumen. Therefore, I.R radiations were found to have a degradative effect on the composition of bitumen.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Quality of Coconut Oils (Unrefined Grade) and (Refined Grade) Produced from Three Survey Regions of East Godavari District, India

G. V. Pavan Kumar, N. V. V. S. S. Lakshmi, Ch. Deena, V. Chandra Sekhar, N. Mehar Nikhitha, Md. Mb. Husnara Begum, V. B. Bhavani, P. Rajendra Kumar

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430076

Aim: The study sought to assess the quality of coconut oil extracted from fresh copra milk by Traditional fermentation(FWCE) and from dry copra balls by continuous processing using expellers(TDCE,DMCE) method with respect to moisture content (MC), free fatty acid (FFA) content, Acid value (AV) and Saponification value in comparison with Food safety and standards authority of India.

Methodology: Three samples of coconut oil were taken from major processing centers in east Godavari district (AMP, SML, KRG) for quality determination. Similarly three samples of coconut oil were prepared from fresh grated coconut milk in the Medicinal chemistry laboratory at Korangi College of pharmacy and three samples were prepared from dry coconut cups. Replicate titer values of each of the nine (09) oil samples obtained were compared with brand double refined oil and the averages were taken into consideration. The AOAC and AOCS methods were used in the analyses and the results compared with Standards provided by Food safety and standards authority of India, Coconut Development Board, Kochi.

Results: The results showed that 50% of the total fermented oil sample had high moisture content than standard and expected to undergo oxidative rancidity. According to the standards, 100% of the oil samples had free fatty acids and acid value within acceptable range indicating no signs of rancidity.

Conclusion: There was a significant difference in saponification value, free fatty acid profile and moisture content of Traditional fermented (FWCE) and dry copra balls by continuous processing expellers (TDCE, DMCE) method. The ANOVA (P<0.05) showed that there were significant differences in the MC, FFA, AV of oils produced among the processing centers and that produced in laboratory. The processes involved in all the extraction centers vary and might have accounted for that. The results indicate that the coconut oils produced in both the cases meet the standards however new technologies in processing should be adopted to improve the quality to meet the standards.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Selected Macro and Micronutrients in Bio Slurry Samples from Different Feed Stocks and Inorganic Fertilizers

J. G. Kinaichu, C. G. Nyaga, P. Njogu, E. G. Gatebe, E. G. Maina

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430075

In Kenya overuse of inorganic fertilizers have rendered soils in arable areas acidic leading to poor crop production and hence great risk of food insecurity. An alternative source of plant nutrients that can also address soil acidity is needed if the country is to be food secure. Bio slurry, a by-product from the biogas plant, can successfully be used to improve crop productivity and soil health. This study was conducted to determine the levels of macro and micro nutrients in bio-slurry from different feed stocks and compare with nutrients from conventional chemical fertilizers. Physical parameters were determined on site. The samples were digested using protein digestion method for nitrogen and acid digestion method for phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium. Phosphorus was then determined using UV-Vis while metals a flame emission spectrophotometer was used. The levels of macro and micronutrients were found to be significantly high in bio slurry samples than in select inorganic fertilizers. This study indicates that bio slurry has basic pH and can be used to raise the pH of acidic soil upon prolonged application. In addition, pig waste slurry can serve better as a planting fertilizer due to its high P content while Cow dung slurry would best serve as a top dresser due to the high nitrogen content.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Selected Ion Monitoring-Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) for Quantification of Poly Aromatic Hydro Carbons in Surface Water from Sarawak, Mambong River (Malaysia)

Isaac John Umaru, Benedict Samling, Hauwa A. Umaru

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430077

Background: Increasing activities have led to serious environmental problems due to Pullution caused by toxic materials such as poly aromatic carbons whose levels are rising in the environment.

Objective: The study presented here carried out the ultra-trace Quantification of Poly Aromatic Hydro carbons in surface water using Selected Ion Monitoring with optimization Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry parameter.

Methods: A Shimadzu QP 2010 Plus GCMS equipped with an auto-injector AOC-20i, 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 um of BP-X5 capillary column (SGE, USA) was used to obtain the result of poly aromatic hydrocarbons to separate and quantify the PAH compounds as well as to identify the Polyromantic Hydrocarbon using USEPA.

Results: The amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at ultra-trace level in the surface water samples was estimated. Sixteen Poly Aromatic Hydro carbons were identified among which Naphthalene Pyrene (45.7 ng/L), Chrysene (59.38 ng/L), Benzo (g, h, i) perylene (40.35 ng/L) as the major pollutants in the water surface of Mambong River water. Total Poly Aromatic Hydro carbons (PAHs) concentrations ranged from 2.0 to 40 ng L-1 was detected in the river water.

Conclusion: The Selected Ion Monitoring -Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (SIM-GCMS) can be considered as sensitive and robust method to analyse PAHs contamination in environmental samples. Thus, help the researchers to uncover the critical areas of environmental pollution at ultra-trace level that many researchers were not able to explore.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation of the Chemical Compositions and Antifungal Activity of Ocimum gratissimum (Nchuanwu) Leaves against Some Plant Pathogens

Rosemary I. Uchegbu, Jacinta N. Akalazu, Chinweotuto E. Sokwaibe

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430078

Aim: This work was carried out to determine the chemical compositions of Ocimum gratissimum leaf (Fig. 1) using GC-MS and its antifungal potential against some plant pathogenic fungi.

Study Design: The study was designed to determine its chemical compositions by GC-MS and to test the inhibitory ability of the plant extract on plant pathogens.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri and Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology, Imo State University, Owerri, Nigeria, between February to July 2017.

Methodology: The ethanol extract of the leaf of Ocimum gratissimum was evaluated using GC-MS to determine the chemical compositions of the plant. The identification of compounds was done by comparing spectrum of the unknown component with the spectrum of the known components stored in the NIST library. The essential oil of the plant was used to analyze the antifungal potential of the plant. This was done against some plant pathogenic fungi using disc diffusion method and MIC using broth micro dilution method.

Results: The GC-MS analysis revealed eight compounds (Fig. 2) with n- Hexadecanoic acid constituting the bulk of the oil (37.21%), followed by Oleic acid (25.38%) and Octadecanoic acid (16.19%). Other compounds present in the plant are Glycyl alcohol (2.47%), Methyl alpha –D- Glucopyranoside (8.33%), Tetradecanoic acid (5.77%), Palmitic amide (2.72%) and d-Glucose, 2,3- diethyl-4,5-dithioacetyl (1.93%). Ocimum gratissimum exhibited different degrees of antifungal activity against the mycelial growth of Aspergillus niger, Botryodiploidia theobromae, Rhizopus stolonifer, Penicillium expansum and Colletotrichum spp and Fusarium oxysporium. The maximum percentage degree inhibition of Ocimum gratissimum oil was observed on A. niger at different concentrations while the least inhibition was observed in Colletotrichum spp at different concentrations.

Analysis of some of the compounds found in Ocimum gratissimum such as Methyl alpha.-d-glucopyranoside, Oleic acid etc, reveals the rich pharmacological potential of this medicinal plant and the inhibitory potential of the plant against fungi justify the use of Ocimum gratissimum as a medicine traditionally.

Open Access Original Research Article

Isolation and Characterisation of Hydrolysable Tannin from Ethyl Acetate Portion of the Aerial Part of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn

Halima A. Umar, Hamidu Usman, Mustapha B. Abubakar, Baba F. Mohammed, Mohammed Babakura, Mohammed A. Sule

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430079

The present work involves extraction of phytochemicals from aerial part of Phyllanthus amarus Schum. & Thonn with n-hexane and 85% methanol. The isolation and characterization of Phytoconstituents was done from the methanol extract through portioning with chloroform and ethyl acetate. Fractionation and isolation (using column and thin layer chromatography respectively) of ethyl acetate column pooled portion afforded a compound coded as E-3.3C. The structure of the isolated compound was established on spectroscopic evidences (IR, 1HNMR, MS), which revealed the compound as 1-de (oxygalloyl)-2ˈ,3ˈ,-di-methoxy-amariin a hydrolysable tannins.

Open Access Original Research Article

Single-step Syznthesis of Coenzyme Q0

Yi-Yu Yan, Yong-Fu Qiu, Tian-Li Zhang, Yu-Bei He, Shi Qi, Jian-Hua Tian, Wan-Yue Luo, Yan Zhao, Jin Wang

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i3-430080

A new method for the preparation of 2-methyl-5,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (Coenzyme Q0) was developed. This improved process in one step by the oxidation of 3,4,5-trimethoxytoluene to coenzyme Q0 by simple oxidation using potassium or ammonium persulfate under transition -metal free conditions.