Open Access Original Research Article

A Comparative Study of Two Albanian Post-Byzantine Icons Attributed to Simoni i Ardenices

Enrico Franceschi, Dion Nole, Stefano Vassallo

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i229668

Aims: The present study is part of a project concerning the characterisation of a limited number of selected Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons, through the identification of pigments, of painting technique and the state of conservation of the artworks. The Albanian iconographers produced an extraordinary amount of icons from the 14th till the 19th century, and over six thousand of them are kept in the Museum of Medieval Art of Korça (Albania). This paper refers to the results obtained in the study of two artworks, the first one by Simoni i Ardenices an important Albanian painter of XVII century, and the second one attributed to him.

Study Design:  The present work is part of a more general study concerning Albanian Byzantine and post-Byzantine icons.

Place and Duration of Study: Museum of Medieval Art of Korça, Albania, between June 2008 and July 2009.

Methodology: The work was conducted by non-destructive methods, X-ray fluorescence, visible light reflectance spectrophotometry and UV fluorescence analysis, according to a systematic procedure developed in the same Chemical Physical Laboratory for Cultural Heritage. A number of areas, for each painting, were chosen in order to carry out the measurements. With this procedure, we could identify the inorganic pigments from their characteristic features. Moreover, the study of the chemical physical properties of paintings is of fundamental importance for any accurate restoration intervention. 

Results and Conclusion: The present work, concerning the study of two icons of the second half of 17th century by Simoni i Ardenices, has allowed us to identify the painting technique and the palette used in these works of art. Moreover, the areas of the paintings in which old restorations have been made have also been identified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quality Assessment of Surface and Ground Water of Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Priscilla Alexander, Janyo Noseh Dahiru, W. Hassan Garba

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i229671

The quality of water from surface and ground water sources in Hong Local Government Area of Adamawa State was studied to determine their suitability or otherwise for drinking and domestic purposes. Nine (9) samples, three (3) each from streams, dug wells and boreholes were randomly collected, during the dry season, in the months of October and November, 2016. The samples were analysed, and the values compared with WHO and NAFDAC standards to ascertain their compliance. The results of the analysis revealed that the physico-chemical parameters studied and concentrations of heavy metals determined, falls within the maximum permissible limits of WHO and NAFDAC standards for drinking water. However, the water samples were predominantly alkaline (pH 6.30 ± 0.10 to 7.00 ± 0.10), (6.70 ± 0.20 to 7.30 ± 0.20), and (7.60 ±0.20 to 8.20 ± 0.10), for boreholes, dug wells and streams respectively. The heavy metals concentrations were determined using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric method. The suitability of water for domestic and drinking purposes indicates that water samples were within the standards prescribed for potable waters.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC, Densitometric and Spectrophotometric Methods for the Simultaneous Determination of Colchicine and Probenecid in Their Binary Mixture

Samah Abd Elsabour Mohammed, Sawsan Abd El Moneim Abd El-Razeq, Israa Abd Elgafar Mohammed

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i229673

Aim: To develop methods with  complete validation according to ICH guidelines and to be  applied for the determination of both drugs in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulation

Study Design: High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), densitometric and different spectrophotometric methods (zero order, derivative ratio, ratio difference and mean centering) are developed for simultaneous determination of colchicine and probenecid in their combined pharmaceutical formulation. 

Methodology: High performance liquid chromatography separation is developed using C18 column and methanol: ammonia (100: 1.5 v/v) as a mobile phase. The densitometric method based on the separation of both drugs using chloroform: methanol: ethyl acetate: water: ammonia (7: 5:2.5:0.5:0.5 by volume) as mobile phase and scanning λ at 254 nm. Zero order determination is based on measurement of colchicine absorbance at 349 nm.  The first derivative ratio of peak amplitudes at 367 nm& at 290.4 nm and the ratio difference with the amplitude difference between (385 nm and 362.4 nm) and ( 270 nm and 255 nm)  for colchicine and probenecid, respectively are developed for the determination of both drugs. Mean centering determination of probenecid is developed by measurement at 279 nm using 3.6 µg/mL of colchicine as a divisor.

Results: HPLC method was applied over the  concentration ranges of 1.0-45.0 µg/mL & 0.5-30.0, while densitometric method was  linear over the concentration 0.15. 0-0.6 & 0.15-0.45 µg / band  and spectrophotometric methods were linear over the concentration ranges 10.00-55.0 & 3.6-20.0 µg/mL  for colchicine and probenecid, respectively.

Conclusion: Novel, simple and accurate method for the determination of colchicine and probenecid simultaneously in their binary mixture.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Biologically Synthesized Silver and Zinc Nanoparticles Using Allcemilla vulgaris (Layd’s Mantle) Leaf Extract

Dilek Demirezen-Yilmaz, Fatih Doğan Koca, Nurhan Ertaş-Onmaz

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i229675

In this study, the powder of Allcemilla vulgaris was used in the sythesis of silver and zinc nanoparticle. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Zeta potential and then evaluated for antibacterial potential using micro dilution broth method. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of AgNP were 4.25 µg/mL and 6.64 µg/ mL for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. Similarly, the MIC values of ZnNP were 3.32 µg/mL and 6.25 µg/mL, respectively for Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus.

Open Access Original Research Article

Extraction and Characterization of Oil from African Locust Bean (Parkia biglobosa) Seed

J. A. Olowokere, A. I. Onen, M. C. Odineze, I. D. B’aga, J. N. Akoji

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i229677

The extraction of oil from African locust bean seeds was carried out in this work. Standard procedures were followed to determine the yield present in the oil feed stocks using n-hexane in a Soxhlet extraction apparatus. Analyses were carried out to determine their proximate compositions and physicochemical characteristics. The determination of the functional groups and fatty acid compositions present in the extracted oils was also carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometry (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS) respectively. The results revealed that African locust bean seed has higher oil yield, crude fat, crude protein, ash content, crude fibre, moisture content than some other seeds such as Date palm seed with the exception of the carbohydrates content. Similarly, African locust bean seed oil which was yellowish brown in colour contained higher acid value, iodine value, peroxide value, free fatty acid with the exception of saponification value and specific gravity in comparism. Result from the FTIR analysis shows that 15 peaks were noticed in African locust bean seed oil, indicating the presence of various functional groups such as OH, C-H, C=C, C=O, C≡ C and C N. Similarly, the GC-MS result also reveals that there are 6 dominating fatty acid compounds present in locust beans seed oil in relation to their relative weight composition abundance. In locust bean seed oil, linoleic acid stood out as the fatty acid compound with the highest weight composition of 31.9% having a relatively high degree of unsaturation. Furthermore, capric acid and lauric acid were found in this oil.  Judging from all the results in this work, it can be deduced that African locust bean seed oil may serve as better alternative oil for consumption and in large-scale production of lubricants, cosmetics, paints, and hydraulic brake fluid.