Open Access Original Research Article

ATR-FTIR, SAXS and UV-Vis Studies of Silicone Hydrogel and Bio-Hydrogel Soft Contact Lenses

Sevgi Bayarı, Tuğba Göcen, Akın Bacıoğlu, Semra İde

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v12i1210

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of contact lens materials on the structural properties and to examine ultraviolet (UVA part) and visible (Vis) transmittance with and without UV filters of the commercially available silicone hydrogel (SiHy) and bio-hydrogel (bio-Hy) soft contact lenses (CLs) in vitro.

Place and Duration of Study: Hacettepe University, Department of Physics, Ankara, Turkey, between May 2018 and May 2021.

Methodology:Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra of CLs were recorded (at removing from its package, after 10 min, 1 h and 1 day at room temperature) in the 4000-650 cm-1region  to  estimate water contents of CLs. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) was performed to differentiate chemical structure of CLs based on the spectral differences. Ultraviolet (UVA) and visible light transmittance of (CLs) was measured in the 315 -800 nm region. Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) analyses were performed to obtain further structural information on nano-scale. 

Results: One of the key observations in this study is the large influence of lens water content. The HCA analysis grouped all the CLs of same  brand in same cluster based on their chemical similarity. The UVA transmittance results showed that CLs with UV blockers almost met ClassI and ClassII standards. The size (11.8-39.9 nm) and differences in morphologies of the nano globules were determined and correlated with equilibrium water content (EWC).

Conclusion: This work was designed to explain important characteristics of commercial CLs and results will have implications for future experimental and clinical research regarding hydration/ dehydration experiments with CL polymers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Vegetables Grown in Rock Soils of Kilembe Copper Mine, Kasese, Western Uganda

Jockus Masereka, Denis Byamugisha, Christopher Adaku

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 30-40
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v12i1213

Aim: Active mining in Kilembe copper mine, Kasese district, Uganda ended about four decades ago. However, various health problems are believed to be from the effect of mining activities that took place in the area. In this study therefore, we quantified the concentration of trace metals: chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) in cabbages and tomatoes grown in Kilembe mining area and assessed the health risks from consumption of the vegetables after 40 days and 120 days of growth.

Study Design:  This study employed quantitative research design.

Place and Duration of Study: The experiments were done at Department of Chemistry, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda from 2018 to 2019.

Methodology: The vegetables were planted, and their roots, leaves, fruits and stems were sampled after 40 days and 120 days. Elemental analysis was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The estimated daily intake (EDI), target harzard quotient (THQ) and cancer risks were calculated to explore health risks that could arise from consumption of the vegetables.

Results: The levels of Fe, Cu, Zn and Cr did not exceed WHO/FAO permissible limits. The EDI of Fe (294.678 × 10-4 mg/kg/day) was the highest while the lowest was 0.052 × 10-4 mg/kg/day for Cr. The THQ ranged from 0.000004 to 1.3134. Cancer risk values ranged from 0.126 × 10-4 to 28650 × 10-4.

Conclusion: There are discernable non-carcinogenic health risks (THQ >1) and cancer risks associated with consumption of cabbages and tomatoes by the local inhabitants. The risks are escalated in children who consume both vegetables after 40 days of growth. Arsenic and Cd poses the highest carcinogenic health risk while Pb poses the highest non-carcinogenic health risk. Consumption of the vegetables after 120 days of growth poses lower health risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Process Technology for Production of Hydrogen-Rich Water and Water Characterizing by Highly Negative Oxidation Reduction Potential

Edward Reszke, Grzegorz Binkiewicz, Grzegorz Schroeder

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 41-55
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v12i1214

The construction of plasma reactors and the technological process of obtaining water rich in hydrogen and characterized by a negative oxidation potential are presented in the publication. Hydrogen-rich water was obtained based on non-plasma technology and water saturation with hydrogen gas in a reactor vessel or in glass bottles. We have developed a plasma flow reactor that allows for contactless microstructuring and modifying the properties of water / aqueous solutions by resonant stochastic vibration amplification of selected chemical compounds in water with broadband electromagnetic noise with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 50 MHz generated during plasma discharge. This water is then saturated with hydrogen gas in the reactor or in glass bottles. The water obtained in the reactor is characterized by a high concentration of hydrogen (8 mg/L) and a negative oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) value (-450 mV). In this technology, the process of saturating water with hydrogen in a 1 m3 tank at a temperature of 20oC takes about 30 minutes. In the technology of obtaining water with negative ORP potential in the bottles, the process of saturating the water with hydrogen lasts only 5-10 seconds. Water obtained with such technology in the glass bottles does not contain much hydrogen gas after 24 hours, while it is characterized by a negative ORP value of about -380 mV even for a period of three months. Obtaining water with presented parameters is possible only in the case of water subjected to the influence of broadband electromagnetic noise with frequencies ranging from 100 Hz to 50 MHz generated during plasma discharge.

Open Access Review Article

Therapeutic Potential of Bioactive Compounds of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper): A Review

Nirmala Halligudi, Mullaicharam Bhupathyraaj, Marwa Hatem Sharif Hakak

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 17-23
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v12i1211

The present study highlights the Bio activities and Pharmacology of Piper nigrum L. (Black Pepper). Piper nigrum L is commonly known as Kali Mirch, Pippali, Milagu Peppercorn, White pepper, Green pepper, Black pepper, and Madagascar pepper longum plant is a deciduous slender aromatic climber. The major source of bioactive constituents in black pepper is present in the fruits. It contains major pungent alkaloid piperine (1-peperoyl piperidine) which is known to possess pharmacological actions. Antimicrobial activity of black pepper evaluated the antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of Piper nigrum L. (black pepper), against different bacterial isolates from oral cavity of individual volunteers.

Open Access Review Article

Bioactives and Pharmacology of Acacia Nilotica: A Review

Mullaicharam Bhupathyraaj, Nirmala Halligudi, Fatma Abdul Razak Al Sayigh, Marwa Hakkak

Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, Page 24-29
DOI: 10.9734/ajacr/2022/v12i1212

This review article aims to provide details on the primary phytochemicals found in Acacia and its numerous pharmacological activities. For those working on the creation of new pharmaceutical products, this review is helpful.