Antioxidants Capacity, Phenolic and Oxalate Content from Two Varieties of Solanum melongena at Different Maturity Stages
Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research,
Aims: To investigate the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and oxalate contents in two varieties of eggplant (Solanum melongena) (terung telunjuk (TT) and terung rapuh (TR)) at different maturity stages.
Study design: Each sample was extracted three times (n=3) for the antioxidant activities, total phenolic and oxalates content. All the data were analysed by using ANOVA and Tukey Pairwise tests.
Place and duration of study: Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), between December 2019 and October 2020.
Methodology: Two varieties of eggplant (TT and TR) were cultivated and the samples were tagged and the fruits were harvested according to their maturity stages (stage 1 – stage 4). Samples were freeze dried and extracted to evaluate the antioxidant activities as well as the total phenolic and oxalate contents.
Results: Total phenolic contents (TPC) in TR were lower from stage 1 to stage 3 but high at over mature stage (stage 4) meanwhile TPC in TT increased upon maturity. The DPPH assay from the fruit extracts of TT in all maturity stages showed a stronger antioxidant activity as compared to TR, in which fruit of TT from stage 3 was double in antioxidant activity as compared to TR. The FRAP assay of both eggplants showed extracts of TT having a higher ferric reduction power in all stages as compared to TR. Meanwhile, both eggplant varieties showed different total, soluble and insoluble oxalate contents in all maturity indices. TT had the highest total oxalate content at stage 1 as compared to TR while the soluble oxalate content increased in TR in all maturity stages. The highest percentage of soluble oxalate content was observed in TR at stage 4 with 95.5%. Conclusion: Phytochemical findings from these eggplant varieties showed their potentials to improve livelihood and public health. More comprehensive studies on the bioactive compounds, structural elucidation and pharmacological evaluation are to be conducted to understand the possible effects of these phytochemical results.
- Solanum melongena
- total phenolic contents
- oxalic acid
How to Cite
Anonymous, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations), FAOSTAT (Eggplant).
Accessed 22 March 2021.
Taher D, Wu T. World vegetable center eggplant collection: Origin, composition, seed world vegetable center eggplant collection: Origin, composition, seed dissemination and utilization in breeding. Front Plant Sci. 2017;8:1484.
Anonymous, Department of Agriculture Malaysia (DOA), Ministry of Agriculture and Food Industries Malaysia (2019), Statistik Tanaman (Sub-sektor Tanaman Makanan). Bahasa Melayu.
Accessed 22 March 2021.
Anonymous, USDA. National nutrient database for standard reference release 1 April, 2018 Full report (All Nutrients)11209, Eggplant. 2018;19–23.
Accessed 22 March 2021.
De la Rosa LA, Moreno-Escamilla JO, Rodrigo-García J, Alvarez-Parrilla E. Phenolic compounds. In Postharvest Physiology and Biochemistry of Fruits and Vegetables. Elsevier Inc. 2018;253- 271.
Nisha P, Nazar PA, Jayamurthy P. A comparative study on antioxidant activities of different varieties of Solanum melongena. Food Chem Toxicol. 2009; 47(10):2640–2644.
Dini C, Doporto MC, García MA, Viña SZ. Nutritional profile and anti-nutrient analyses of Pachyrhizus ahipa roots from different accessions. Food Res Int. 2013;54(1):255–261.
Molyneux P. The use of the stable free radical diphenylpicryl- hydrazyl (DPPH) for estimating antioxidant activity. Songklanakarin J Sci Tech. 2004; 26(2):211-219.
Benzie IFF, Strain JJ. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of ‘‘Antioxidant Power’’: The FRAP assay. Anal Biochem. 1996;239:70 -76.
Singleton VL, Rossi JA. Colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic phosphotungstic acid reagents, Am J Enol Vitic.1965;16:144-158.
Savage G. Effect of cooking on the soluble and insoluble oxalate content of some New Zealand foods. J Food Compo Anal. 2000;13(3):201–206.
Salahuddin MAH, Ismail A, Kassim NK, Hamid M, Ali MSM. Phenolic profiling and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activities of Lepisanthes fruticosa (Roxb) Leenh fruit extracts. Food Chem. 2020;331:127240.
Lee YL, Yen MT, Mau JL. Antioxidant properties of various extracts from Hypsizigus marmoreus. Food Chem. 2007;104(1):1–9.
Kim DE, Lee WJ, Gebru YA, Choi HS, Yeo SH, Jeong YJ, et al. Comparison of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Maclura tricuspidata fruit extracts at diﬀerent maturity stages. Molecules. 2019;24:567.
Wang B, Huang Q, Venkitasamy C, Chai H, Gao H, Cheng N et al. Changes in phenolic compounds and their antioxidant capacities in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Miller) during three edible maturity stages. LWT. 2016; 6:56–62.
Niño-Medina G, Urías-Orona V, Muy-Rangel MD, Heredia JB. Structure and content of phenolics in eggplant (Solanum melongena) - A review. S Afr J Bot. 2017;111:161–169.
Khoo HE, Azlan A, Tang ST, Lim SM. Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: Colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food Nutr Res. 2017;61(1):0– 21.
Gertrude BY, Robinson M, Robinson R. A survey of anthocyanins. II. Biochemical J. 1932;6(5):1647.
Ionică ME. Evolution of some physico-chemical characteristics of the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruits during their growth and ripening. South-west J Hortic Biol Environ. 2020;11(1):27–35.
Samaniego I, Brito B, Viera W, Cabrera A, Llerena W, Kannangara T, et al. Influence of the maturity stage on the phytochemical composition and the antioxidant activity of four andean blackberry cultivars (Rubus glaucus Benth) from Ecuador. Plants. 2020;9(8):1–15.
Benjamin A, Winner K, Constance N, Ahamefula E, Ijeoma E, Chimaraoke O, et al. Comparative study of chemical composition of three different eggplant fruit species. A Food Sci J. 2020;19(3): 10–16.
Kim DJ, Kim H, Kim M, Lee J. Analysis of oxalic acid of various vegetables consumed in Korea. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2007;16: 650–654.
Siener R, Ebert D, Nicolay C, Hesse A. Dietary risk factors for hyperoxaluria in calcium oxalate stone formers. Kidney Int. 2003;63(3):1037–1043.
Managa MG, Mpai S, Remize F, Garcia C, Sivakumar D. Impact of moist cooking methods on colour, anti-nutritive compounds and phenolic metabolites in African nightshade (Solanum retroflexum Dun.). Food Chem. 2020;325:126805.
Abstract View: 161 times
PDF Download: 100 times