Treatment of Poultry Wastewater Using Shells from African Cherry Seeds, Egg and Crab

Main Article Content

Abimbola O. Aleshinloye
Kemayou Ngangsso
Feyisara B. Adaramola
Adebayo Onigbinde


This study investigated the potential of some agricultural wastes viz; African Star apple seed shell (ASS, plant source), crab shell (CS, animal source) and chicken egg shell (ES, animal source) as eco-friendly and low-cost biological materials for the removal of heavy metals from poultry wastewater. TS, TSS and TDS of the wastewater sample were assayed by filtration methods, chloride content by previously reported method and heavy metal contents (Zn, V, Cd, Fe, Ni, Cu, Co, Pb, Cr and Mn); were analyzed using Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer. The results of the solids and chloride contents of the poultry wastewater were TDS (3100 mg/L), TS (3700 mg/L), TSS (6000 mg/L) and chloride (4.7 g/L); all above the EPA permissible limits. Results of the FTIR analysis showed that ASS is an amide polymer while the CS and ES shells are mixtures of amide and carbonate polymers. Also, results of heavy metal analysis before and after adsorption showed that ASS caused removal of Zn, V, Fe, Cu, Co/ Pb and Mn by 48.27, 32.22, 49.64, 91.44, 100 and 82.39% respectively while Cd, Ni and Cr contents increased by 31, 61 and 48.3% respectively. CS showed removal of Fe, Ni/ Co/ Cr, Pb and Mn by 89.64, 100, 3.51 and 95.96% respectively while Zn, V, Cd and Cu contents increased by 1.7, 61.2, 76.1 and 68.1% respectively. Meanwhile, with ES, the contents of Zn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cr and Mn increased by 31.56, 86.36, 100, 55.5, 45.80 and 90.33% respectively while the contents of V, Cd, Co and Pb decreased by 78.9, 86.7, 42.5 and 46.2% respectively. This study demonstrated the use of ASS, CS and ES as low- cost and eco-friendly agricultural wastes with significant potential for removal of heavy metals from wastewaters.

Adsorption, African star seed shell, crab shell, egg shell, FTIR, low-cost adsorbents, heavy metals, wastewater treatment.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aleshinloye, A. O., Ngangsso, K., Adaramola, F. B., & Onigbinde, A. (2020). Treatment of Poultry Wastewater Using Shells from African Cherry Seeds, Egg and Crab. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 7(1), 16-30.
Original Research Article


MetCalf L, Eddy HP. Waste water engineering: Treatment, disposal and re-use. 3rd Ed., McGraw-Hill, New York; 1991.

Nagham AA. The use of local sawdust as an adsorbent for the removal of copper ion from wastewater using fixed bed. Adsorption, Eng. & Tech. J. 2010;28(2): 224-235.

Glissi S, Tarbaou M, Makouki L, Mansouri S, Legrouri K, Hannache H, et al. Transformation of residual biomass into adsorbent materials: Applications to treatment of liquid effluents. Mediterr. Jour. of Chemis. 2019;9(1):1-11.

Haseena M, Malik MF, Javed A, Arshad S, Asif N, Zulfiqar S, et al. Water pollution and human health. Environ Risk Assess Remediat. 2017;1(3):16-19.

Pawari MJ, Gawande S. Ground water pollution & its consequence. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science. 2015;3(4):773-76.

Juneja T, Chauhdary A. Assessment of water quality and its effect on the health of residents of Jhunjhunu district, Rajasthan: A cross sectional study. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology. 2013;5(4):186-91.

Khan MA, Ghouri AM. Environmental pollution: Its effects on life and its remedies. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce. 2011;2(2):276-85.

Berger MR, Habs M, Jahn SSS, Schmahl D. Toxicological assessment of seeds from Moringa oleifera and Moringa stenopetala, two highly efficient primary coagulants for domestic water treatment of tropical waters. East Afr. Med. J. 1984;61:712-716.

Wang Y, Zhou Y, Jiang G, Chen P, Chen Z. One step fabrication of carbonaceous adsorbent from corncob for enhancing adsorption capability of methylene blue removal. Scientific Reports. 2020;10: 12515.

Rabia B, Bullo S, Mohd ZH. Carbon nanomaterials for the treatment of heavy metal-contaminated water and environmental remediation. Nanoscale Research Letters. 2019;14:341.

Ali I, Alharbi OML, Alothman ZA, Badjah AY. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and modelling of amido black dye photodegradation in water using Co/TiO2 nanoparticles. Photochem. & Photobiol. 2018;94(5):935-941.

Fort YA. Studies of autocatalytic electrocoagulation reactor for lead removal from simulated wastewater. J. Environ. Chem. Eng. 2018;8(3):6069-6078.

Khan S, Edathil AA, Banat F. Sustainable synthesis of graphene-based adsorbent using date syrup. Scientific Reports. 2019;9:18106.

Imran A, Alexandr VB, Irina VB, Elena AN, Evgeny VG, Alexey GT, et al. Removal of copper (II) and zinc (II) ions in water on a newly synthesized polyhydroquinone material: Kinetics, thermodynamics and mechanism. Chem. Select. 2019;4(43): 12708-12718.

Imran A, Tabrez AK, Iqbal H. Treatment and remediation methods for arsenic removal from the ground water. Int. J. Environ. Eng. 2011;3(1):48-71.

Nilanjana R. Use of plant material as natural coagulants for treatment of waste water. Water Environment and Management: Proc. of the 18th WEDC Conference, Kathmandu, Nepal, Loughborough University Press. 2005;54-58.

Sutherland JP, Folkard GK, Mtawali MA, Grant WD. Moringa oleifera as natural coagulant. Journal of WEDC Conference. University of Leicester, UK; 1994.

Arunlertaree C, Kaewsomboon W, Kumsopa A, Pokethitiyook P, Panyawathanakit P. Removal of lead from battery manufacturing wastewater by egg shell. Sci. Technol. 2007;29(3):857-868.

Karamura S. Effectiveness of natural polyelectrolytes in water treatment. J. AWWA. 1991;83(10):88.

Mohana D, Pittman CU. Jr. Arsenic removal from water/wastewater using adsorbents- A critical review. J. Hazard Mater. 2007;142(1-2):1-53.

Akin-Osanaiye BC, Gabriel AF, Salau TO, Murana OO. Chrysophyllum albidum seed (African star apple) as an additive in agriculture feed and a potent antimicrobial. 2018;6(5):107-113.

Adepoju OT. Nutrient composition and micronutrient potential of three wildly grown varieties of African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) from Nigeria. African J. of Food Sci. 2012;6:344-351.

Fatoba PO, Adeyemi SB, Adewole AA, Fatoba MT. Medicinal plant used in the treatment of infant diseases in South Western Nigeria. Nigeria Jour. of Basic and Appl. Sci. 2018;26(1):14-22.

Iyamah PC, Idu M. Ethnomedicinal survey of plans used in the treatment of malaria in Southern Nigeria. Jour. of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;173:287-302.

Mowobi GG, Abubakar S, Osuji C, Etim VN, Ogechi N, Egya JJ. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used for the treatment of skin disease in Keffi, Nigeria. AJPCT. 2016;4(02):073-090.

Ajibesin KK, Umoh UF, Bala DD. The use of medicinal plants to treat sexually transmitted diseases in Nigeria: Ethnomedicinal survey of Niger Delta Region. Intern. Journ. of Green Pharmacy. 2011;5(3):181.

Mintah SO, Asafo-Agyei T, Archer M, Atta-Adjei P, Boamah D, Kumadoh D, Appiah A, Ocloo A, Boakye YD, Agyare C. Medicinal plants for treatment of prevalent diseases. In: Pharmacognosy- Medicinal Plants. The Creative Common Attribution Licience; 2019. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.82049

Rotjan RD, Chabot JR, Lewis SM. Social context of shell acquisition in Coenobita clypeatus hermit crabs. Behavioral Ecology. 2010;21(3):639-646.

Tumova E, Ketta M. Eggshell structure, measurements and quality-affecting factors in laying hens: A review. Czech J. Anim. Sci. 2016;61(7):299-309.

Poland AL, Sheldon BW. Altering the thermal resistance of foodborne bacterial pathogens with an eggshell membrane waste by-product. J. Food Prot. 2001;64:486–492.

Wijaya V, Teo SS. Evaluation of eggshell as organic fertilizer on sweet basil. Int. J, of Sustan. Agric. Resea. 2019;6(2):79-86.

Abiola SS, Radebe NE, Westhuizen CVD, Umesiobi DO. Whole hatchery waste meal as alternative protein and calcium sources in broiler diets. Arch. Zootec. 2012;61(234):229-234.

Borhade AV, Kale AS. Calcined eggshell as a cost effective material for removal of dyes from aqueous solution. Appl Water Sci. 2017;7:4255–4268.

Mignardi S, Archilletti L, Medeghini L, De Vito C. Valorization of eggshell Biowaste for sustainable environmental remediation. Scientific Reports. 2020;10:2436.

APHA, AWWA and WEF, Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th Edition, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association and Water Environmental Federation, Washington D.C.; 1998.

Goher MEM. Chemical studies on the precipitation and dissolution of some chemical element in Lake Qarun, Ph.D. Thesis faculty of sciences, Al-Azhar University, Egypt; 2002.

Sawyer CN, McCarty PL, Parkin CF. Chemistry for environmental engineering, McGraw-Hill; 1994.

Shukla M, Arya S. Determination of chloride ion (Cl-) concentration in Ganga River water by Mohr Method at Kanpur, India. Green Chem. & Tech. Lett. 2018;4(1):06-08.

Zheljazkov VD, Nielson NE. Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint. Plant Soil. 1996;178:59–66.

Ireland Environment Protection Agency, Parameters of water quality: Interpretation and Standards, Environmental Protection Agency, Johnstown. 2001;133.

Environmental Protection Agency, US Inorganic Contaminant Accumulation in Potable Water Distribution Systems, Office of Groundwater and Drinking Water, USA; 2006.

World Health Organization Guidelines for drinking-water quality. Recommendations, 3rd Edn. World Health Organization, Geneva. 2004;1.

World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality - 4th Ed.; 2011.

Wani ABL, Parveen N, Aswari MO, Ahmed Md. F, Jameel S, Shadab GGHA. Zinc: An element of extensive medical importance, Curr. Med. Res. and Pract. 2017;7(3):90.

Trivedi D, Trivedi MK, Branton A, Nayak G, Jana S. Consciousness energy healing treatment modulating the physicochemical properties of vanadium Pentoxide (V2O5). J Environ Health Sci. 2019;5(2):71.

Imasuen OI, Egai AO. Concentration and environmental implication of heavy metals in surface water in Aguobiri community, Southern Ijaw Local Government Area, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. Environ. Manage. 2013;17(4):467-472.

Animashaun IM, Orhevba BA, Otache MY, Aliyu A, Kuti IA, Ad'ofikwu IA. African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidium) seed processing into activated carbon for Fe and Cu removal from wastewater, 2nd Nat. Eng. Conf., ACICON Faculty of Eng., Bayero Uni., Kano; 2016.

Johri N, Jacquillet G, Unwin R. Heavy metal poisoning: The effects of cadmium on the kidney. Biometals. 2010;23:783-792.

Burger J. Heavy metals in avian eggshells: Another excretion method. J. of Toxic. and Environ. Health. 1994;41(2):207-220.

Chaplygina AB, Yuzyk DI. The analysis of heavy hetal concentrations in eggs of collared flycatchers, ficedula albicollis (Passeriformes, Muscicapidae), and Tits, Parus Major Parus Caeruleus (Passeriformes, Paridae), in Different Areas of North-Eastern Ukraine, Vestnik zoologii. 2016;50(3):259-266.

Orosun MM, Tchokossa P, Nwankwo LI, Lawal TO, Bello SA, Ige SO. Assessmeny of heavy metal pollution in drinking water due to mining and smelting activities in Ajaokuta, Nigeria. Nig. Jour. of Tech. Dev. 2016;13(1):31-39.

Cempel M, Nikel G. Nickel: A review of its sources and environmental toxicology. Polish J. of Environ. Stud. 2006;15(3):375-382.

Kumar S, Trivedi AV. A review of role of nickel in the biological system. Int. J. Microbiol. App. Sci. 2016;5(3):719-727.

Bost M, Houdart S, Oberli M, Kalonji E, Hunearun JF, Margaritis I. Dietary copper and human health: Current evidence and unresolved issues. J. of Trace Elem. In Med. And Bio. 2016;35:107-115.

Yamada K. Cobalt: Its role in health and disease. Met. Ions Life Sci. 2013;13:295-320.

Anderson RA. Chromium in the prevention and control of diabetes. Diabetes Metab. 2000;26(1):22-27.

Zhaojun W, Lin W, Zhhenyong W, Jian W, Ran L. Effect of manganese deficiency on serum hormones and biochemical markers of bone metabolism in chicks. J. Bone Miner Metab. 2013;3:285-292.