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Aim: To compare the phytochemicals and anti bacterial activities of leaf, stem and root extracts of Spathodea companulata.
Methodology: The leaf, stem and root of Spathodea companulata were collected, washed, air-dried, ground and each extracted with water, methanol, ethyl acetate and n-hexane. The extracts were analysed for the presence of phytochemicals. Antimicrobial analysis was also carried out on the extracts.
Results: Glycosides were present in all the extracts except stem aqueous extract. Steroids were found absent in most of the extracts except methanol stem and n-hexane root extracts. Saponins were found in methanol, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of the root and stem, and in methanol and aqueous leaf extracts. Alkaloids were present in methanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root, and in ethyl acetate and n- hexane extracts of the stem. Quantity of Alkaloids and tannins were higher in leaf, while flavonoids and glycosides were higher in the stem and the roots contained higher amount of saponins. The extraction solvent polarities played important role in the type of metabolites extracted. The stem extracts were found to be most active against the seven test organisms used.
Conclusion: More work should be done on the isolation and identification of compounds responsible for some of the pharmacological effects of the plant parts and the subsequent development of the compounds in formulation of drugs.
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