Adsorption Performance of Packed Bed Column for the Removal of Lead (II) Using Velvet Tamarind (Dialium indum) Shells

Main Article Content

Jibrin Noah Akoji


The removal of Pb ions by activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind (Dialium indum) shells was studied to investigate its uptake potentials using column sorption at different operating conditions (flow rates, initial concentrations and bed height). The prepared adsorbent was characterized by determining the physicochemical properties, proximate analysis, carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen and Sulpur analysis, Fourier Transform-Infra Red, Potentiometric titration. Different dynamic models were used to describe the sorption processes. The FTIR analysis results suggested the presence of functional groups such as hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl and amine which could bind the metals and remove them from the solution. The values of moisture content, volatile matter, fixed carbon and ash content as obtained from % proximate analysis are 3.43, 27.07, 65.05, 4.45 for activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells. Ultimate analysis revealed that activated carbons prepared from velvet tamarind shells contained 75% carbon. The surface area and Iodine number of activated carbon from velvet tamarind shell are 570 m2g-1 and 614.7 mgg-1 respectively. The column experimental data revealed that an increase in bed height and initial metal concentration or a decrease of flow rate enhances the longevity of column performance by increasing both breakthrough time and exhaustion time thereby delaying bed saturation. Low ash content and high surface areas are indication of good mechanical strength and microporosity of the activated carbons prepared from this precursor.  The activated carbons are inexpensive and appeared to be effective and can be explore for future commercial application for environmental sustainability.

Adsorbent, velvet tamarind, adsorption, pollution.

Article Details

How to Cite
Akoji, J. (2019). Adsorption Performance of Packed Bed Column for the Removal of Lead (II) Using Velvet Tamarind (Dialium indum) Shells. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 3(2), 1-14.
Original Research Article


Oliveira RC, Guibal E, Garcia O. Biosorption and desorption of lanthanum (III) and neodymium(III) in fixed-bed columns with Sargassum sp. Perspectives for separation of rare earth metals. Biotechnology Progress. 2012;28(3):715-722.

Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D. Removal of heavy metals by waste tea leaves from aqueous solution. Engineering and Life Science. 2005;5(9):158-162.

Nouri J, Mahvi AH, Babaei AA, Jahed GR, Ahmadpour E. Investigation of heavy metals in groundwater Pakistan Journal of Biologial Science. 2006;9(3):377-384.

Dermibas A. Heavy metal adsorption onto agro-based waste materials: A review. Journal of Hazardous Material. 2008; 157(8):220-229

Lazaridis NK, Matis KA, Diels L. Application of flotation to the solid/liquid separation of Ralstonia metallidurans. 3rd Eur. Bioremediation Conf., TU Crete, Chania; 2005.

Kuma A, Jena HM. High surface area microporous activated carbons prepared from fox nut (Euryale ferox) shell by zinc chloride activation Applied Surface Science. 2015;356:753–761.

Abia AA, Asuquo ED. Kinetics of Cd2+ and Cr+3+ sorption from aqueous solution using mercaptoacetic acid modified and unmodified oil palm fruit fibre (Elaeis guineensis) adsorbents. Journal of Tsinghua Science Technology. 2007; 38(11):1324-1328.

Sing KSW, Everett DH, Haul RAW, Moscou L, Pierotti RA, Rouquerol J, Siemieniewska T. Reporting physisorption data for gas/solid interface with special reference to the determination of surface area and porosity. Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2006;57:603-619.

Kahraman S, Dogan N, Erdemoglu S. Use of various agricultural wastes for the removal of heavy metal ions. International Journal of Environmental Pollution. 2008; 34:275-284.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard, Refractories, Carbon and Graphic Products; activated Carbon, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA. 1996;15(01).

Ahmedna M, Johns MM, Clarke SJ, Marshall WE, Rao RM. Potential of agri-cultural by-product-based activated carbons for use in raw sugar decolourisa-tion. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 1997;7(5):117-124.

American Society for Testing and Materials. Standard test method for determination of iodine number of activated carbon. Philadelphia, PA: ASTM Committee on Standards; 1986.

Al-Quodah Z, Shawabkah R. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge. Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2009; 26(1):6-10.

Alam C, Molina-Sabio M, Rodriguez-Reinoso F. Adsorption of methane into ZnCl2-activated carbon derived discs. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials. 2008;76(15):185-191.

Yahaya NKEM, Abustana I, Latiff MFIPM, Bello OS, Ahmad MA. Fixed-bed column study for Cu (II) removal from aqueous solutions using rice husk based activated carbon. International Journal of Engineering & Technology. 2011;11(1): 248-252.

Maheswari BL, Mizon KJ, Palmer JM, Korsch MJ, Taylor AJ, Mahaffey KR. Blood lead changes during pregnancy and postpartum with calcium supplementation. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2008; 112(15):1499-1507.

Mozammel HM, Masahiro O, Bhattacharya SC. Activated charcoal from coconut shell using ZnCl2 activation. Biomass and Bioenergy. 2010;22(6):397-400.

Gottipati R, Susmita M. Process optimization of adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated carbons prepared from plant precursors by a two-level full factorial design. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2012;160(1):99-107.

Pandey KK, Prasad G, Singh VN. Use of wollastonite for the treatment of Cu(II) rich effluent. Water Air and Soil Pollution. 2014; 27:287-296.

Valix M, Cheung WH, McKay G. Preparation of activated carbon using low temperature carbonization and physical activation of high ash raw bagasse for acid dye adsorption. Chemosphere. 2004;56: 493-501.

Satyawali Y, Balakrishnan M. Wastewater treatment in molasses-based alcohol distilleries for COD and color removal: A review. Journal of Environmental Manage-ment. 2009;86:481-497.

Lopez FA, Perez C, Sainz E, Alonso M. Adsorption of Pb (II) on blast furnace sludge, Journal of Chemical Technology. 1995;62(2):200-206.

Kanan K, Sundaram MM. Kinetics and mechanism of removal of methylene blue by adsorption on various carbons—A comparative study. Dyes and Pigments. 2001;51:25–40.

Karthikeyan S, Balasubramanian R, Iyer CSP. Evaluation of the marine algae Ulva fasciata and Sargassum species for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Bioresource Technology. 2008; 98(2):452-455.

Vijayaraghavan K, Padmesh TVN, Palanivelu K, Velan M. Biosorption of nickel(II) ions onto Sargassum wightii: Application of two-parameter and three-parameter isotherm models. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2006;133:304-308.

Mohammed UM, Binta M, Mustapha S, Idris M. Removal of lead and cobalt from pharmaceutical effluent: Efficiency of activated coconut shell and commercial activated carbon. American Chemical Science Journal. 2016;12(2):1-8.

Alikarami M, Abbari Z, Mohammadnezhad S. Kinetics and thermodynamic studies of copper (II), mercury(II) and chromium(II) adsorption from aqueous solution by peels of banana. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research. 2016;3(3):8-15.

Amuda OS, Giwa AA, Bello IA. Removal of heavy metal from industrial wastewater using modified activated coconut shell carbon. Biochemical Engineering Journal. 2007;36(23):174-181.

Deheyn DD, Gendreu P, Baldwin RJ, Latz MI. Evidence for enhanced bioavailability of trace elements in the marine eco- system of Deception Island, a volcano in Antarctica. Marine Environmental Research. 2005;60(4):1-33.

Castro A, Suarez-Garcia F, Martinez-Alonso A, Tascon JMD. Activated carbon fibers with a high content of surface functional groups by phosphoric acid activation of PPTA. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science. 2008;3(61):307-315.

Liu S, Liu J. Surface modification of coconut shell based activated carbon for the improvement of hydrophobic VOC removal. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2008;192(2):683-690.

Yang X, Duri BA. Kinetic modeling of liquid-phase adsorption of reactive dyes on activated carbon. Journal of Colloid Interface Sciences. 2005;287:25-34.

Alothman ZA, Habila MA, Ali R. Prepara-tion of activated carbon using the copy-rolysis of agricultural and municipal solid wastes at a low carbonization temperature. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Biological and Environmental Chemistry. 2011;24:67– 72.

Betzy NT, Soney C. Cyanide in industrial wastewaters and its removal: A review on bio-treatment. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2015;163:1-11.

Tamura H, Hamaguchi T, Tokura S. Destruction of rigid crystalline structure to prepare chitin solution. Advances in Chitin Science. 2003;7:84–87.

Patil S, Bhole A, Natrajan G. Scavenging of Ni(II) Metal Ions by adsorption on PAC and Babhul Bark. Journal of Environmental Science and Engineering. 2006;48(3):203-208.

Volesky B. Advances in biosorption of metals: Selection of biomass types. Microbiology Reviews. 2005;14:291– 302.

Hrapovic L, Rowe RK. Intrinsic degradation of volatile fatty acids in laboratory- com-pacted clayey soil. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology. 2002;58:221- 242.

Sasikala S, Muthuraman G. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater using Tribulus terrestris herbal plants powder. Iranica Journal of Energy and Environ-ment. 2016;7(1):39-47.

Baek K, Song S, Kang S, Rhee Y, Lee C, Lee B, Hudson S, Hwang T. Adsorption kinetics of boron by anion exchange resin in packed column bed. Journal of Industrial Engineering Chemistry. 2007;13(3):452-456.

Kavak D, Öztürk N. Adsorption of boron from aqueous solution by sepirolite: II. Column studies. II. Illuslrararasi. Journal of American Chemical Society. 2004;23(25): 495-500.

Aksu Z, Gönen F, Demircan Z. Biosorption of chromium (VI) ions by Mowital®B30H resin immobilized activated sludge in a packed bed: Comparison with granular activated carbon. Process Biochemistry. 2004;38(2):175-186.

Sousa FW. Green coconut shells applied as adsorbent for removal of toxic metal ions using fixed-bed column technology. Journal of Environmental Management. 2010;91(8):1634-1640

Martín-Lara MA, Blázquez G, Ronda A, Rodríguez IL, Calero M. Multiple biosorption–desorption cycles in a fixed-bed column for Pb(II) removal by acid-treated olive stone. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry. 2012;18(3): 1006-1012.