Characterization and Antimicrobial Profiling of Ethanol-Toluene Extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Pod

Okechukwu Paul Nsude

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Kingsley John Orie *

Department of Chemistry, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


The research reports the characterization and antimicrobial profiling of an ethanol-toluene extract of the Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod. The sample was powdered and extracted with a solvent system of ethanol-toluene (2:1). The extract was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, as well as a wet analysis investigation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis reveals the presence of flavonoids (0.307), phenols (0.4545), alkaloids (1.7165), tannins (6.118), saponins (5.700), and glycosides (0.2375). The FTIR revealed the presence of 1723cm-1, which was assigned to carbonyl groups, and the peaks within the range of 3416.10–3777.54cm-1 were attributed to hydroxyl groups. The GC-MS reveals the presence of 34 molecules in the chromatogram, which is consistent with the mass spectra. The ethanol-toluene extract contains 19 guaiacyl and its derivatives, as well as 15 syringyl and its derivatives. The molecule, propenylsyringol (cis)b has the highest yield based on the height of the peak. Other lignin-derived molecules with a good percentage of extraction were vanillin, syringaldehyde and synapylalcohol (cis). The antimicrobial analysis of the extract was tested on nine pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus bacilli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Candida species, Aspergillus Niger, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus fumigates). The result therefore reveals that the ethanol-toluene extract of PMBP was more effective on S. pyogenes (0.9mm), P. bacilli (0.5 mm), and Fusarium spp. (0.9mm) at the MIC of 6.25mg/mL. The standard antimicrobial agents, Focknazol (antifungal) and Ciprotab (antibacterial), have the highest zone inhibition at an MIC of 6.25mg/mL, when compared with the ethanol-toluene extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod. The ethanol-toluene extract of the Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod can be used as a source of guaiacyl or syringyl derivatives and also clinically since it is sensitive to some pathogens.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, bacteria, extract, fungi, Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth

How to Cite

Nsude , O. P., & Orie , K. J. (2023). Characterization and Antimicrobial Profiling of Ethanol-Toluene Extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Pod. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 13(3), 15–24.


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