Characterization and Antimicrobial Profiling of Ethanol-Toluene Extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Pod

Okechukwu Paul Nsude

Department of Industrial Chemistry, Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Kingsley John Orie *

Department of Chemistry, Ignatius Ajuru University of Education, Rivers State, Nigeria.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

The research reports the characterization and antimicrobial profiling of an ethanol-toluene extract of the Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod. The sample was powdered and extracted with a solvent system of ethanol-toluene (2:1). The extract was characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis, as well as a wet analysis investigation. The qualitative and quantitative analysis reveals the presence of flavonoids (0.307), phenols (0.4545), alkaloids (1.7165), tannins (6.118), saponins (5.700), and glycosides (0.2375). The FTIR revealed the presence of 1723cm-1, which was assigned to carbonyl groups, and the peaks within the range of 3416.10–3777.54cm-1 were attributed to hydroxyl groups. The GC-MS reveals the presence of 34 molecules in the chromatogram, which is consistent with the mass spectra. The ethanol-toluene extract contains 19 guaiacyl and its derivatives, as well as 15 syringyl and its derivatives. The molecule, propenylsyringol (cis)b has the highest yield based on the height of the peak. Other lignin-derived molecules with a good percentage of extraction were vanillin, syringaldehyde and synapylalcohol (cis). The antimicrobial analysis of the extract was tested on nine pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus bacilli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Candida species, Aspergillus Niger, Penicillium spp., Fusarium spp., and Aspergillus fumigates). The result therefore reveals that the ethanol-toluene extract of PMBP was more effective on S. pyogenes (0.9mm), P. bacilli (0.5 mm), and Fusarium spp. (0.9mm) at the MIC of 6.25mg/mL. The standard antimicrobial agents, Focknazol (antifungal) and Ciprotab (antibacterial), have the highest zone inhibition at an MIC of 6.25mg/mL, when compared with the ethanol-toluene extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod. The ethanol-toluene extract of the Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod can be used as a source of guaiacyl or syringyl derivatives and also clinically since it is sensitive to some pathogens.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, bacteria, extract, fungi, Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth


How to Cite

Nsude , O. P., & Orie , K. J. (2023). Characterization and Antimicrobial Profiling of Ethanol-Toluene Extract of Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth Pod. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 13(3), 15–24. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2023/v13i3244

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Wright GD. Antibiotic resistance in the environment: a link to the clinic?. Current Opinion in Microbiology. 2010;13(5):589-594.

Laxminarayan R, Duse A, Wattal C, Zaidi AK, Wertheim HF, Sumpradit N, Cars O. Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions. The Lancet Infectious Diseases. 2013;13(12):1057-1098.

Okocha BI, Orie KJ, Duru RU, Ngochindo RI. Analysis of the active metabolites of ethanol and ethyl acetate extract of Justicia carnea. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2023;26(1): 111-117.

Nsude OP, Orie KJ. Phytochemical constituent and anti-corrosion properties of the root extract of Phyllanthus mellerianus (Nvo-nkwu) plant on mild steel in 1.5 M HCl medium. Chemical Science International Journal. 2022;31(2):21-34.

Saxena M, Saxena J, Nema R, Singh D, Gupta A. Phytochemistry of medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2013;1(6):68-182.

Matic I, Guidi A, Kenzo M, Mattei M, Galgani A. Investigation of medicinal plants traditionally used as dietary supplements: A review on Moringa oleifera. Journal of public health in Africa. 2018; 9(3).

Chhikara N, Kaur A, Mann S, Garg MK, Sofi SA, Panghal A. Bioactive compounds, associated health benefits and safety considerations of Moringa oleifera L.: An updated review. Nutrition & Food Science. 2021;51(2):255-277.

Balogun BI. Evaluation of the nutritional potentials of fermented oil beans seed Pentaclethra macrophyllah Benth. PAT. 2013;9(2):73-87.

Aremu AK, Ademuwagun AA, Ogunlade CA. Effects of moisture content and loading orientation on some mechanical properties of the african oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). African Journal of Agricultural Research. 2014;9(49):3504-3510.

Nsude OP, Agboeze E, Ezeh EC, Ike OC, Omuluche OC, Orie KJ, Ogbobe O. Isolation and characterization of cellulose from Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth pod biomass wastes for polymer reinforcement composite. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria. 2022;47(3).

Olaifa FE, Ajayi FR, Taiwo VO, Bello OS. Growth response and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus on feeds supplemented with African oil bean (Pentaclethra Macrophylla Benth) seed residues. Food. 2012;6(1):44-48.

Ajugwo AO, Adias TC, Osuala FN, Aghatise K, Onoriode DO, Anosike AU. In vitro studies of anticoagulation activity of pentaclethra macrophylla. Journal Nutrient Health. 2013;1(2):15-17.

Yusuf-Babatunde AM, Kasim LS, Osuntokun OT. Short term toxicological evaluation of the Pentaclethra macrophylla (Benth) essential oil (Oil Bean Seed) on organs of normal male albino rats. Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;22(3):41-48.

Nsude OP, Orie KJ. Microcrystalline cellulose of oil bean pod: Extraction, physico-chemical, brunauer–emmett–teller (BET), and flow-ability analysis. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research. 2022;12(4):1-12.

Madukasi EI, Tojola OB, Oso K, Igwe CC. Thermo-chemical features of coating sludge and codensification of ad alternative energy source. AASCIT Journal of Environment. 2015;1(2):28-34.

Mhilu CF. Analysis of energy characteristics of rice and coffee husks blends.International Scholarly Research Notices; 2014.

Oboh G, Bello FO, Ademosun AO, Akinyemi AJ, Adewuni TM. Antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and anti-angiotensin-1-converting enzyme properties of lemon (Citrus limon) and lime (Citrus aurantifolia) juices. Comparative Clinical Pathology. 2015;24:1395-1406.

Omer SA, Adam, SEI, Mohammed OB. Antimicrobial Activity of Commiphora myrrha Against Some Bacteria and Candida albicans Isolated from Gazelles at King. Research Journal of Medicinal Plant. 2011;5(1):65-71.

Balakrishnan B, Paramasivam S, Arulkumar A. Evaluation of the lemongrass plant (Cymbopogon citratus) extracted in different solvents for antioxidant and antibacterial activity against human pathogens. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease. 2014;4:S134-S139.

Bayoub K, Baibai T, Mountassif D, Retmane A, Soukri A. Antibacterial activities of the crude ethanol extracts of medicinal plants against Listeria monocytogenes and some other pathogenic strains. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2010;9(27):4251- 4258.

Chedia A, Ghazghazi H, Brahim H, Abderrazak M. Secondary metabolite, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Teucrium polium L. methanolic extract. International Journal of Plant Production. 2013;4:1790-1797.

Hosseinzadeh S, Jafarikukhdan A, Hosseini A, Armand R. The application of medicinal plants in traditional and modern medicine: a review of Thymus vulgaris. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2015; 6(09); 635-642.

Wishart DS. Advances in metabolite identification. Bioanalysis. 2011;3(15): 1769-1782.

Abdulaziz Al-Hamoud G, Saud Orfali R, Sugimoto S, Yamano Y, Alothyqi N, Mohammed Alzahrani A, Matsunami K. Four new flavonoids isolated from the aerial parts of Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk.(Qadab). Molecules. 2019;24(11):2167.

Orie KJ, Duru RU, Ngochindo RI. Metal complexes of heterocyclic sulphonamide: synthesis, characterization and biological activity. Science Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2021;9(4):104.

Don-Lawson C, Nweneka DO, Okah R, Orie KJ. Synthesis, Characterization and Bioactivity of 1, 1-bis (2-Carbamoylguanidino) furan-2-ylmethane. American Journal of Analytical Chemistry. 2020;11(06):261-271.

Al-Fatimi M. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in central Abyan governorate, Yemen. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2019;241:1119-11127.

Orie KJ, Ngochindo RI, Abayeh OJ. Synthesis of 1, 1-bis (2-carbamoylguanidino) furan-2-ylmethane. Journal of Chemical Society of Nigeria, 2019;44(2):263-268.

Gonfa T, Teketle S, Kiros T. Effect of extraction solvent on qualitative and quantitative analysis of major phyto-constituents and in-vitro antioxidant activity evaluation of Cadaba rotundifolia Forssk leaf extracts. Cogent Food & Agriculture. 2020;6(1):1853867.

Ehara K, Takada D, Saka S. GC-MS and IR spectroscopic analyses of the lignin-derived products from softwood and hardwood treated in supercritical water. Journal of wood science. 2005;51:256-261.