Heavy Metals Analysis in Human Body (Toenail, Fingernail and Hair Samples) and Drinking Waters of Santa Fe Region, Argentina

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J. I. Bungudu
L. Shuaibu
U. F. Mohammed
M. Alkali


This study provides an insight into a province of Santa Fe region of a developing country, namely San Cristobal and Huanqueros, Argentina and a possible link between arsenic, copper and iron concentration in toenail, fingernail and hair in the population. A multivariate statistical tool, known as Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to explain the behaviour of the elements in toenails, fingernails, drinking waters and hair using multi- base 2013 excel add- ins. Correlation test, error bars, and a 2-factor ANOVA test were employed. Results from one hundred and twenty- nine (n=129) samples of tap well water (n=23), rainwater (n=20), bottled water (n=6) and treated well water (n=80) and each of toenail, fingernail and hair (n=129) samples from the subjects were determined and the results compared with the previous works. Mean, standard deviation, covariance and maximum and minimum for each variable were reported. The hypothesis is to understand if there is a correlation between fingernail and toenail metals levels and make a comparison with previous researches. Results show that a positive correlation exists between fingernail and toenail metals concentrations. Also, the study reveals higher concentrations of arsenic, copper and iron in the samples tissues compared with the values available in the previous works. The elevated levels of these metals may be attributed to the drinking water sources. Since this study highlighted elevated levels of these metals, consumptions of contaminated drinking water should be constantly monitored. Finally, the application of multivariate statistical techniques can provide powerful information on heavy metals bioaccumulation analysis in human and environment.

Heavy metals, drinking water, human nail, human hair, principal component analysis

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How to Cite
Bungudu, J. I., Shuaibu, L., Mohammed, U. F., & Alkali, M. (2018). Heavy Metals Analysis in Human Body (Toenail, Fingernail and Hair Samples) and Drinking Waters of Santa Fe Region, Argentina. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 2(1), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2018/v2i19582
Original Research Article