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Vegetables are an important source of nutrients and play a vital role in maintaining good health. Nowadays, vegetables are destroyed by a variety of unwanted contaminants which have become a serious problem. Eating contaminated vegetables can lead to many ailments and disrupt normal body functions. Therefore, the key objective of this study is to determine the contamination level of heavy metals in known vegetables and their growing soils in Lalmonirhat, Bangladesh; Consumers' health risks are assessed by targeted health factor (THQ) and target cancer risk (TCR) analysis. Average concentrations of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in vegetables were 30.83, 429.27, 9.91, 32.19, 0.58, 8.88 mg/kg, as well as 240.83, 3690.45, 22.88, 65.87, 0.69 and 11.58 mg/kg in growing soils. Concentrations of heavy metals were compared with the recommended value of the World Health Organization and the average Fe, Pb, and Cd concentrations in leaf, fruit and root vegetables exceeded the allowable limit. In addition, the value of TSQ and carcinogenic parameters in leaf, fruit, and root vegetables was higher than 1.0 for Fe and Pb. Therefore, the THQ of Fe and Pb is harmful to humans. Also, the risk of cancer exceeds the USEPA risk threshold (>10–6) and the TCR of Pb shows a higher cancer risk, whereas Cd risk is higher. Therefore, the use of this vegetable is of concern and it is strongly recommended to monitor it regularly.
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