Teratogenicity, Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Genotoxicity and Toxicity of Petroleum- contaminated Wastewater in Niger-Delta Nigeria

Main Article Content

Fawole Charles
S. J. Salami
D. A. Dashak

Abstract

The chronic human health effects of the 17 US Environmental Protection Agency [USEPA] priority pollutants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs] were investigated and characterized in petroleum contaminated wastewater discharged indiscriminately into the surface water of Okpoka creek off the upper Bonny River estuary in the Niger-Delta. Collections and sampling were conducted under the standard specifications, ethics and protocols of U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The liquid-liquid extraction of Petroleum contaminated wastewater samples were conducted in accordance with standard procedure of US EPA. Identification and quantification of 17 PAHs were performed by Gas chromatograph with Mass spectrometric detection (GC/MSD) in accordance with standard analytical method of US EPA. The result showed presence of Naphthalene [2.6000 mg/l], Acenaphthylene [8.0000 mg/l], Acenaphthene [0.0000 mg/l], Fluorene [9.0008 mg/l], Anthracene [0.0000 mg/l], Phenanthrene [0.0000 mg/l], O-Terphenyl [5.0200 mg/l], Fluoranthene [1.1000 mg/l], Pyrene [8.0000 mg/l], Benz[a]anthracene [1.0900 mg/l], Chrysene [0.0000 mg/l], Benzo[b]fluoranthene [10.0000 mg/l], Benzo[k]fluoranthene [0.0000 mg/l], Benzo[e]pyrene [0.0000 mg/l], Dibenzo [a,h] anthracene [4.0100 mg/l], Indeno[1,2.3-cd]pyrene [9.2000 mg/l] and Benzo[g,h,i]perylene [3.0000 mg/l]. The results also indicated that some of the 17 PAHs constituents were above the PAHs World Health Organization [2003] maximum permissible limits (MPL) in drinking water (0.0020 mg/l) with 64% and 35.29% below the MPL. The low molecular weights of PAHs [LPAHs] were 40.60% and high molecular weights of PAHs [HPAHs] were 59.40%. Human teratogenic PAHs [9.09%], Human mutagenic PAHs [24.24%], Human carcinogenic PAHs [24.24%], Human genotoxic PAHs [18.18%] and other toxics [24.24%]. Thus, total PAHs concentrations gave 61.2800 mg/l of the petroleum contaminated wastewater sample.

Keywords:
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tetratogenic; mutagenic, carcinogenic; genotoxic, toxic, petroleum-contaminated wastewater, Niger-Delta Nigeria.

Article Details

How to Cite
Charles, F., Salami, S. J., & Dashak, D. A. (2020). Teratogenicity, Mutagenicity, Carcinogenicity, Genotoxicity and Toxicity of Petroleum- contaminated Wastewater in Niger-Delta Nigeria. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 4(3), 1-9. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330114
Section
Original Research Article

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