Evaluation of Addition Chromium Feed to the Efficiency of Gouramy (Osphronemus goramy) Nursery Time

Main Article Content

Yuli Andriani
Junianto .
Iskandar .
Inggia Putra Pamungkas

Abstract

This research aims to determine the efficiency of gouramy nursery time by providing chromium feed. Chromium feed is carried out by adding lemna meals containing chromium to commercial feed with Cr concentration of each treatment at 0 ppm; 1.3 ppm; 1.5 ppm; and 1.7 ppm. Based on preliminary test Lemna sp. which was cultured in tannery wastewater for five days could accumulate Cr in the tannery wastewater in its tissue in an organic form of 2,319 mg kg-1. This research was conducted using a completely randomized experimental design (CRD) method with four treatments. Treatment A (Control commercial feed without Lemna), B (Commercial feed + Lemna 56.06 g kg-1), C (Commercial feed + Lemna 64.68 g kg-1), D (Commercial feed + Lemna 73.31 g kg-1) and each treatment was repeated four times. The addition of Cr in commercial feed can give significantly different results on increasing the absolute length of gouramy fry, while in survival it does not give a real difference. Giving Lemna sp. with Cr 2,319 mg kg-1 content as much as 73.31 g kg-1 in commercial feed or equivalent to 1.7 ppm Cr produces survival rate, absolute length increase and the best maintenance time efficiency in gouramy fry successively at 87.5 ± 5%; 1.89 ± 0.04 cm and with a maintenance time of 42 days to achieve an increase 2 cm length, 1.6 times faster than the control treatment.

Keywords:
Chromium, giant gourami, nursery, time efficiency.

Article Details

How to Cite
Andriani, Y., ., J., ., I., & Pamungkas, I. P. (2019). Evaluation of Addition Chromium Feed to the Efficiency of Gouramy (Osphronemus goramy) Nursery Time. Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 4(3), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i330112
Section
Original Research Article

References

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Groff JL, Gropper SS. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 3rd Ed. Wadsworth-Thompson Learning, Belmont, USA. 2000;584.

Giri AK, Sahu NP, Saharan N, Dash G. Effect of dietary supplementation of chromium on growth and biochemical parameters of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Fingerlings. Indian J. Fish. 2014;61(2):73-81., Zidni I, Sadri MY, Wicaksono PN. Effect of proteolytic plant-derived enzyme on gourami (Osphronemus goramy Lac.) growth rate. Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci. 2018;41(2): 897–906.

Nugroho E. Endang pamularsih gurame yang jempolan. Media Akuakultur. 2012; 7(2):99–102.

Aryani N, Azrita A. Mardiah, Syandri H. Influence of feeding rate on the growth, feed efficiency and carcass composition of the giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy). Pakistan J. Zool. 2017;49(5):1775–1781.

Andriani Y, Setiawati M, Sunarno MTD. Kecernaan pakan dan kinerja pertumbuhan yuwana ikan gurami, Osphronemus goramy Lacepede, 1801 yang diberi pakan dengan penambahan glutamin. Jurnal Iktiologi Indonesia. 2018; 19(1):1–11.

Subandiyono, Hastuti S. Trivalent chromium (Cr+3) in dietary carbohydrate and its effect on the growth of commonly cultivated fish. Jurnal Teknologi. 2016; 78(4–2):233–237.

Pamungkas IP, Andriani Y, Junianto, Iskandar. Lemna sp. as a chromium heavy metal phytoremediator on tannery wastewater and its potential use as fish feed. Asian Plant Research Journal. 2019; 3(1):1–7.

Nafea EMA. Characterization of environmental conditions required for production of livestock and fish fodder from duckweed (Lemna gibba L.). Journal of Mediterranean Ecology. 2016;14:5–11.

Standar Nasional Indonesia. Produksi Benih Ikan Gurami (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac.) Kelas Benih Sebar. Badan Standar Nasional Indonesia. 2000;SNI 01-6485.3-2000.

Effendie MI. Biologi perikanan. Yayasan Pustaka Nusantara, Yogyakarta. 2002; 163.

Begenal T. Methods for the assessment of fish production in fresh waters. 3rd Edition. Blackwell Scientific Publication. Oxford London. 1978;365.

Panase P, Mengumphan K. Growth performance, length-weight relationship and condition factor of backcross and reciprocal hybrid catfish reared in net cages. International Journal of Zoological Research. 2015;11(2):57–64.

Le Cren CD. The length-weight relationship and seasonal cycle in gonad weight and condition in perch, Perca fluviatilis. Journal of Animal Ecology. 1951; 20(2):201–219.

Maloho A. Juliana, Mulis. Pengaruh pemberian jenis pakan berbeda terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy). Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan. 2016;4(1):16–25.

Mareta RE, Ssubandiyono, Hastuti S. Pengaruh enzim papain dan probiotik dalam pakan terhadap tingkat efisiensi pemanfaatan pakan dan pertumbuhan ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy). Jurnal Sains Akuakultur Tropis. 2017;1(1):21–30.

Juliana Y. Koniyo, Panigoro C. Pengaruh pemberian pakan buatan menggunakan limbah kepala udang terhadap laju pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup benih ikan gurame (Osphronemus gouramy). Jurnal Ilmu Kelautan Kepulauan. 2018;1(1):30–39.

Hastuti S, Mokoginta I, Dana D, Sutardi T. Resistensi terhadap stres dan respons imunitas ikan gurami (Osphronemus gouramy, Lac.) yang diberi pakan mengandung kromium-ragi. Jurnal Ilmu-ilmu Perairan Perikanan Indonesia. 2004; 11(1):15–21.

Subandiyono I, Mokoginta E. Harris, Sutardi T. Peran suplemen kromium-ragi dalam pemanfaatan karbohidrat pakan dan pertumbuhan ikan gurami. Hayati. 2004; 11(1):29–33.

Hua Y, Clark S, Ren J, Sreejayan N. Molecular mechanisms of chromium in alleviating insulin resistance. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2012;23:313–319.

Shadreck M, Mugadza T. Chromium, an essential nutrient and pollutant: A review. African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2013;7(9):310–317.

Rakhmawati MA, Suprayudi, Setiawati M. Bioefficacy of dietary chromium picolinate and chromium yeast on growth performance and blood biochemical in red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus). Aquaculture Research. 2017;1–8.

Vincent J. The biochemistry of chromium III. 2nd Ed. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Belanda. 2018;396.

Ahmed AR, Jha AN, Davies SJ. The efficacy of chromium as a growth enhancer for mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio L): An integrated study using biochemical, genetic, and histological responses. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2012;148:187–197.

Groff JL, Gropper SS. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. 3rd Ed. Wadsworth-Thompson Learning, Belmont, USA. 2000;584.

Giri AK, Sahu NP, Saharan N, Dash G. Effect of dietary supplementation of chromium on growth and biochemical parameters of Labeo rohita (Hamilton) Fingerlings. Indian J. Fish. 2014;61(2):73-81.