A Review on Common Methods for Characterizing Graphene Oxide (GO)

Main Article Content

Md. Shafiul Islam

Abstract

Graphene oxide, two-dimensional material with the thickness of 1.1±0.2 nm, has gained attention to a greater extent in the field of science for its radically distinctive properties: physical, chemical, optical as well as electrical etc. Graphene oxide (monolayer sheet) has been synthesized by oxidizing graphite (millions of layer) to graphite oxide (multilayers) which has been converted into graphene oxide via exfoliation followed by sonication and centrifugation - a method mentioned as Modified Hummer Method. I focus on the chemical structure of graphene oxide. However, I discuss the different analytical methods such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray Diffraction pattern for characterizing the graphene oxide. Furthermore, this review covers the analytical evaluation of graphene oxide and discuss the past, present and future of graphene oxide in the scientific world.

Keywords:
Graphene oxide, modified hummers method, spectroscopy, characterization.

Article Details

How to Cite
Shafiul Islam, M. (2019). A Review on Common Methods for Characterizing Graphene Oxide (GO). Asian Journal of Applied Chemistry Research, 4(2), 1-8. https://doi.org/10.9734/ajacr/2019/v4i230109
Section
Review Article

References

Geim AK, Novoselov KS. The rise of graphene. Nature Materials. 2007;6(3): 183–191.

Sykes ECH. Graphene goes undercover Nat. Chem. 2009;1:175.

Stoller MD, Park S, Zhu Y, An J, Ruoff RS. Graphene-Based Ultracapacitors. Nano Letters. 2008;8(10):3498–3502.

Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN. Superior Thermal Conductivity of Single-Layer Graphene. Nano Letters. 2008;8(3): 902–907.

Ghosh S, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Pokatilov EP, Nika DL, Balandin AA, Bao W, Miao F, Lau CN. Extremely high thermal conductivity of graphene: Prospects for thermal management applications in nanoelectronics circuits. Applied Physics Letters. 2008;92 (15):151911.

Kostaleros K, Novoselov KS. Graphene devices for life, Nat. Nanotechnol. 2014;9744-5.

Bitounis D, Ali-Boucetta H, Hong BH, Min DH, Kostarelos K. Prospects and Challenges of Graphene in Biomedical Applications. Advanced Materials. 2013;25 (16):2258–2268.

Georgakilas V, Otyepka M, Bourlinos AB, Chandra V, Kim N, Kemp KC, Hobza P, Zboril R, Kim KS. Functionalization of graphene: Covalent and non- covalent approaches, derivatives and applications. Chemical Reviews. 2012;112 (11):6156–6214.

Rodrigues AF, Newman L, Lozano N, Mukherjee SP, Fadeel B, Bussy C, Kostarelos K. A blueprint for the synthesis and characterisation of thin graphene oxide with controlled lateral dimensions for biomedicine. 2D Materials. 2018;5(3): 035020.

Yang K, Feng L, Shi X, Liu Z. Nanographene in biomedicine: therapeutic applications, Chem. Soc. Rev. 2013;42: 530-47.

Hummers WS, Offeman RE. Preparation of graphitic oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 1958;80(6):1339–1339.

Alam SN, Sharma N, Kumar L. Synthesis of Graphene Oxide (GO) by Modified Hummers Method and Its Thermal Reduction to Obtain Reduced Graphene Oxide (RGO)*. Graphene. 2017;06(01):1–18.

Pei S, Cheng HM. The reduction of graphene oxide. Carbon. 2012;50(9): 3210–3228.

Wang G, Yang J, Park J, Gou X, Wang B, Liu H, Yao J. Facile synthesis and characterization of graphene nanosheets. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2008;112(22):8192–8195.

Tour JM, Kosynkin DV. Highly oxidized graphene oxide and methods for production thereof; 2012. US20120112929736A1

Garg B, Bisht T, Ling YC. Graphene-based nanomaterials as heterogeneous acid catalysts: A comprehensive perspective. Molecules. 2014;19(9): 14582–14614.

Lai Q, Zhu S, Luo X, Zou M, Huang S. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy of graphene oxides. AIP Advances. 2012;2 (3):032146.

Aliyev E, Filiz V, Khan MM, Lee YJ, Abetz C, Abetz V. Structural characterization of graphene oxide: Surface functional groups and fractionated oxidative debris. Nanomaterials. 2019;9(8):1180.

Tao H, Zhang Y, Gao Y, Sun Z, Yan C, Texter J. Scalable exfoliation and dispersion of two-dimensional materials – An update. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics. 2017;19(2):921–960.

Wu ZS, Ren W, Gao L, Liu B, Jiang C, Cheng HM. Synthesis of high-quality graphene with a pre-determined number of layers. Carbon. 2009;47(2):493–499.

Osváth Z, Darabont A, Nemes-Inczz P, Horváth E, Horváth Z, Biró L. Graphene layers from thermal oxidation of exfoliated graphite plates. Carbon. 2007;45(15): 3022–3026.

Hauffe WDJ, Oconnor BA, Sexton R, St. C. Smart (Eds). Surface analysis methods in materials science. (Bd. 23 springer series in surface sciences). Springer-verlag berlin, Heidelberg, New York. 453 S., 250 Abb., 18 Tab. Crystal Research and Technology. 1992;27(8):1078–1078.
[ISBN: 3–540–53611–6]

Dubin S, Gilje S, Wang K, Tung VC, Cha K, Hall AS, Farrar J, Varshneya R, Yang Y, Kaner RB. A one-step, solvothermal reduction method for producing reduced graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. ACS Nano. 2010;4(7):3845–3852.

Rourke JP, Pandey PA, Moore JJ, Bates M, Kinloch IA, Young RJ, Wilson NR. The real graphene oxide revealed: Stripping the oxidative debris from the graphene-like sheets. Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 2011;50(14):3173–3177.

Song J, Wang X, Chang CT. Preparation and characterization of graphene oxide. Journal of Nanomaterials. 2014:1–6.

Fujimoto A, Yamada Y, Koinuma M, Sato S. Origins of sp3C peaks in C1s X-Ray photoelectron spectra of carbon materials. Analytical Chemistry. 2016;88 (12):6110–6114.

Scholz W, Boehm H. Investigations on graphite oxide. VI. Reflections on the structure of Graphite Z, Anorg. Allg. Chem. 1969;369:327-340.

Shariary L, Athawale AA. Graphene oxide synthesized by using modified hummers approach. Int. J. Renew. Energy Environ. Eng. 2014;2:58-63.

Wei N, Peng X, Xu Z. Understanding water permeation in graphene oxide membranes. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. 2014;6(8):5877–5883.

Nasrollahzadeh M, Babaei F, Fakhri P, Jaleh B. Synthesis, characterization, structural, optical properties and catalytic activity of reduced graphene oxide/copper nanocomposites. RSC Advances. 2015;5(14):10782–10789.

Huh SH, Ju HM, Choi SH. X-ray diffraction patterns of thermally reduced graphenes. Journal of the Korean Physical Society. 2010;57(61):1649–1652.

Chen J, Yao B, Li C, Shi G. An improved hummers method for eco-friendly synthesis of graphene oxide. Carbon. 2013;64:225–229.