Main Article Content
Chemical and nutritional changes with senescence in some fruits commonly consumed in Makurdi, North Central Nigeria, were investigated using standard analytical methods. Four fruits: mango, pawpaw, orange and pineapple at three different stages of growth; pre-ripe, ripe, and post-ripe were screened for proximate composition, mineral elements, pH, titrable acidity, and vitamins A and C. Results indicated increase in moisture content as the fruit deteriorated in the climacteric fruits (mango and pawpaw), while in the non-climateric fruits (orange and pineapple) the parameter depreciated from ripe to over-ripe. Other proximate parameters showed a consistent rise at ripening and declining thereafter as the fruit deteriorated. In all cases, pH of the fruits showed steady rise with senescence, and this was inversely related to the titrable acidity. Beta-carotene (vitamin A) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) showed similar trend of peaking at the ripening stages and declining as the fruits aged. Nitrogen recorded the highest concentration (45.28±0.04 mg/L) among the macronutrient elements at the ripe stage of pawpaw, while phosphorus recorded the least (1.39±0.01 mg/L) for over-ripe pineapple. The instrument failed to detect Ni in all samples analyzed in the micronutrient mineral elements category, while Ca recorded the highest (5.25±0.07 mg/L). Macronutrients showed consistency in appreciating at ripening and depreciating as the fruits aged. Only Zn showed presence in all samples among the micronutrients analyzed. Results showed that in most of the parameters investigated, nutritional and chemical contents of the fruits are at their optimum at the ripen stage of the fruits, and declined as the fruits deteriorates with age.
Michels KB, Giovannucci E, Joshipura KJ, Rosner BA, Stampfer MJ, Fuchs CS, Colditz GA, Speizer FE, Willett WC. Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers. J. Natl. Cancer. 2000;92: 1740-52.
Van Duyn MA, Pivonka E. Overview of the health benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption for the dietetics professional. J. Am. Diet Assoc. 2000;99(10):1241-48.
Suree N, Surat K, Akekachai N. Phythate and fiber content in Thai fruits commonly consumed by diabetic patients. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 2004;87(12):1444-1446.
Jahan S, Gosh T, Begum M, Saha BK. Nutritional profile of some tropical fruits in Bangladesh: Especially antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Bangladesh Journal of Medical Sciences. 2011;10(2):95-113.
Kozioc MJ, Marcia MJ. Chemical composition nutritional evaluation and economic prospects of Spondias purpurea (Anaracardiaceae). Econ Bot. 2004;52: 373-80.
Osabor VN, Egbung GE, Okafor PC. Chemical profiles of Nupa fruitican from Cross River Estuary; South-eastern Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutri. 2008;7:146-50.
Abeles FB, Takeda F. Cellulase activity and ethylene in ripening strawberry and apple fruits. Sci. Hortic. 1990;42:269–75.
Campone L, Piccinelli AL, Pagano OI, Carabetta S, Di Sanzo R, Russo M, Rastrelli L. Determination of phenolic compounds in honey using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. Journal of Chromatography A. 2014;1334:9-15.
Ben-Porath I, Weinberg RA. The signals and pathways activating cellular senescence. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 2005;37:961–76.
Fuleki T, Pelayo E, Palabay R. Carboxylic acid composition of authentic, varietal and commercial grapes juices. Journal of Assoc. of Anal. Chem. Int. 1993;76:591- 600.
Romeo EG, Munoz GS. Determination of organic acids in grapes musts, wines and vinegars by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. J. Chrom. A. 1993;655: 111-17.
Inuwa HM, Aina VO, Gabi B, Aimola I, Amao T. Comparative determination of antinutritional factors in groundnut oil and palm oil. Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2011;3(4):275-79.
Amoo IO, Lajide J. Chemical composition and nutritional significance of the fruits of Nauclea latifolia fruits. Riv Ltd Satanze Grasse. 1999;76:321-32.
Watada AE, Aulecbach BB, Worthinton JT. Vitamins A and C in ripe tomatoes as affected by stage of ripeness at harvest and by supplementary ethylene. J. of Food Sci. 1976;41:856-58.
Bernardi J, Licciardello C, Russo MP, Chiusano ML, Carletti G, Recupero GR, Marocco A. Use of a custom array to study differentially expressed genes during blood orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) ripening. Journal of Plant Physiology. 2010;67:301-10.
Hussain J, Rehman N, Khan AL, Hamayun M, Hussain SM, Shinwari ZK. Proximate and nutrients evaluation of selected vegetables species from Kohat Region Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot. 2010;42(4):2847- 55.
Assaf D, Raz A, Andreas MF. Senescence, nutrient mobilization and yield in wheat and barley. Journal of Experimental Botany Advance Access. 2013;2:1-16.
AOAC. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis. Washington, DC; 2012.
Onwuka GI. Food analysis and instrumentation: theory and practice. 1st Ed., Surulere, Lagos Napthali Prints. 2005;140-60.
Nielsen SS. Food analysis laboratory manual. New York, Springer; 2010.
Bello MO, Falade OS, Adewusi SR, Olawore NO. Studies on the chemical compositions and anti-nutrients of some lesser known Nigeria fruits. African J. Biotechn. 2008;7(21):3972-79.
Smith PF, Reuther W. Mineral content of oranges in relation to fruit age and some fertilization practices. Florida State Horticultural Society. 1953;76:80–85.